Wednesday, July 31, 2019

The Most Important Discovery in the Last 100 Years

A lot of significant discoveries have been made over the past centuries. While various discoveries in astronomy, science, physics set our lives on entirely different course, I strongly believe that the discovery of the fist antibiotic, penicillin played a crucial role in the history of mankind. Firstly, before the discovery of penicillin some diseases were incurable and any wound could result in death because of bacteria. Though different methods in medicine were used to limit outbreaks and reduce the spread of diseases, researchers did not know how to kill bacteria that caused diseases. Invented by Alexander Fleming in 1928, penicillin cured a lot of diseases that had caused so much pain and suffering. For example, such illnesses as sepsis and pneumonia were fatal in the majority of cases. Penicillin became the fist drug to defeat those illnesses. Moreover, due the use of penicillin during World War II a tremendous amount of soldiers survived. Penicillin made a major difference in the number of deaths and amputations caused by infected wounds. This antibiotic was the most powerful, the least harmful and gave quick results. Though being the most limited cure, penicillin saved countless lives during the war. Last but not the least, penicillin played an important role in the increase of world life expectancy. It prevented population from the risk of getting the fatal diseases such as fevers, sepsis and pneumonia and reduced deaths at young ages. To illustrate this, the world life expectancy has doubled over the past two centuries from 45 years in 1920 up to 67 and more nowadays. Above all, a lot of other types of antibiotics were developed from penicillin, such as amoxicillin, which, in turn has treated other serious diseases and become innovation in medicine. To conclude, the invention of penicillin became a very important event in the history of medicine. The use of penicillin helped to save lives of many people and reduce the number of losses during World War II. It is impossible to imagine the modern life without antibiotics. Due to them people are not in danger of suffering from serious diseases as they were before the invention of the life-saving cure.

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Margaret Garner

The Fugitive Slave Act is one of the causes of the Civil War in America. The Fugitive Slave Act is an act that renders all slaves to be controlled and overpowered by their owners with the help of District Court of the United States. However, the owners have a big responsibility towards their slaves especially when it is fugitive for they need to pay to the District Court of the United States when an officer or a marshal captured a fugitive.When it happens, the owner needs to go to the District Court and have all the papers needed to show that the fugitive was his of theirs. In this case, it will be a big burden for the owners to have fugitives so they find their fugitives on their own before the officers or the marshals could find them because it will cost them a lot of money, time and effort. The purpose of this paper is to show the relation of the Fugitive Slave Act to the life of Margaret Garner during the years of slavery.Margaret Garner is a fugitive slave who has four children. She and her family went to a friend in order to escape from their owners. They went through a lot of place to find the house of their friend named Kite. However, before they saw the house of their friend, they asked different people to give them the direction going to the Mill Creek, the place of the house of their friend. Through this journey, many people have seen them so their pursuance can reach them whenever they go.When they were in the house of their friend, their pursuance finds them but before they got Margaret Garner, she killed her youngest daughter, who was also her favorite child. She also likes to kill all her three children but her pursuance got her and brought her to the court. Margaret Garner thought of this situation as the only way not to make her children felt the suffering of being slaves. The court let Garner and her family free because the evidences showed that they were given a vacation by their owners in a Free State. Therefore, they were free during the ti me when they went to the house of their friend, but going to the Mill Creek, which is a purpose of escape brought them back to slavery.Both slaves and free backs in America were affected with this Act because this law made a big transformation to the ownership of the slaves, not only the slaves who are being controlled in this Act but also the owners. In the Fugitive Slave Act, when a slave escaped from his or her owner, there will be a lot of discussion between the owner and the District Court in terms of record verification, and penalty of the owner because of its fugitive slaves. Therefore, the owner will be the one who is responsible in finding its slaves to avoid penalty. Aside from the owner’s problem to its labor force, there will be also a problem when their fugitive slaves were captured by the officers or marshals and brought to District Court.The Northern abolitionist and Southern slaveholders were also affected with this Fugitive Slave Act because it produced a sch eme of reward in order to assist the generation of enticements among Southern slaveholder and Northern abolitionist catchers in regaining their possessions. Consequently, escaped slaves will not be safe in the North. Therefore, slaves have limited actions in their works for they were not safe in every place they go.According to the Section 10 of the Fugitive Slave Act, when any person held to service or labor in any State or Territory, or in the District of Columbia, shall escape. There from, the party to whom such service or labor shall be due, his,   her, or their agent or attorney, may apply to any court of record   therein, or judge thereof in vacation, and make satisfactory proof to such court, or judge in vacation, of the escape aforesaid, and that the   person escaping owed service or labor to such party.This statement brought the case of Margaret Garner to the court. According to the evidences, she had her vacation to the Free State during the time she went to the Mill Creek. That is why the court made a decision to set her and her family free because her owners did not abide the law that she can go to the Free States when she was in a vacation. However, the means of killing her daughter for the notion of not making them slaves when they grow up is a form of escape. In this case, they were called fugitives. Therefore, they were brought back into slavery.During the year of 1850’s when slavery became intensifying problem of both North and South due to the Fugitive Slave Act and their slaves, owners became stricter and wanted their slaves to be barricaded inside their properties so that these slaves would not escape. Margaret Garner’s tragic story happened during these years, when slaves do not know what to do in order to make their family free even if the pay for this cost was their slavery until they die because of the pain, sorrow, and struggle of being slaves.Margaret killed her daughter to make a change. She knew that it was not j ust for her and for her family but also for the society. She wanted change – a change in the way of treating slaves. The law can be seen as â€Å"unjust law† because the individuality of the slaves was taken for granted. The Fugitive Slave Act was all about the actions that can be done to the owners and the fugitives when the fugitive is captured. However, the fugitive has no right to have its life. Slaves were treated as robots and animals, which are actually humans. The tragic story of Margaret Garner is a revelation to the law and to the whole society during this period – the â€Å"unjust law† made the slaves not humans but animals taking them as their own.Sources:Halsall, Paul. The Fugitive Slave Act, September 18, 1850.Internet Modern History Sourcebook. 1998. http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1850fugitive.htmlCoffin, Levi. Margaret Garner. Reminiscences (Cincinnati, 1876) http://aalbc.com/authors/margaret.htm Margaret Garner The Fugitive Slave Act is one of the causes of the Civil War in America. The Fugitive Slave Act is an act that renders all slaves to be controlled and overpowered by their owners with the help of District Court of the United States. However, the owners have a big responsibility towards their slaves especially when it is fugitive for they need to pay to the District Court of the United States when an officer or a marshal captured a fugitive.When it happens, the owner needs to go to the District Court and have all the papers needed to show that the fugitive was his of theirs. In this case, it will be a big burden for the owners to have fugitives so they find their fugitives on their own before the officers or the marshals could find them because it will cost them a lot of money, time and effort. The purpose of this paper is to show the relation of the Fugitive Slave Act to the life of Margaret Garner during the years of slavery.Margaret Garner is a fugitive slave who has four children. She and her family went to a friend in order to escape from their owners. They went through a lot of place to find the house of their friend named Kite. However, before they saw the house of their friend, they asked different people to give them the direction going to the Mill Creek, the place of the house of their friend. Through this journey, many people have seen them so their pursuance can reach them whenever they go.When they were in the house of their friend, their pursuance finds them but before they got Margaret Garner, she killed her youngest daughter, who was also her favorite child. She also likes to kill all her three children but her pursuance got her and brought her to the court. Margaret Garner thought of this situation as the only way not to make her children felt the suffering of being slaves. The court let Garner and her family free because the evidences showed that they were given a vacation by their owners in a Free State. Therefore, they were free during the ti me when they went to the house of their friend, but going to the Mill Creek, which is a purpose of escape brought them back to slavery.Both slaves and free backs in America were affected with this Act because this law made a big transformation to the ownership of the slaves, not only the slaves who are being controlled in this Act but also the owners. In the Fugitive Slave Act, when a slave escaped from his or her owner, there will be a lot of discussion between the owner and the District Court in terms of record verification, and penalty of the owner because of its fugitive slaves. Therefore, the owner will be the one who is responsible in finding its slaves to avoid penalty. Aside from the owner’s problem to its labor force, there will be also a problem when their fugitive slaves were captured by the officers or marshals and brought to District Court.The Northern abolitionist and Southern slaveholders were also affected with this Fugitive Slave Act because it produced a sch eme of reward in order to assist the generation of enticements among Southern slaveholder and Northern abolitionist catchers in regaining their possessions. Consequently, escaped slaves will not be safe in the North. Therefore, slaves have limited actions in their works for they were not safe in every place they go.According to the Section 10 of the Fugitive Slave Act, when any person held to service or labor in any State or Territory, or in the District of Columbia, shall escape. There from, the party to whom such service or labor shall be due, his,   her, or their agent or attorney, may apply to any court of record   therein, or judge thereof in vacation, and make satisfactory proof to such court, or judge in vacation, of the escape aforesaid, and that the   person escaping owed service or labor to such party.This statement brought the case of Margaret Garner to the court. According to the evidences, she had her vacation to the Free State during the time she went to the Mill Creek. That is why the court made a decision to set her and her family free because her owners did not abide the law that she can go to the Free States when she was in a vacation. However, the means of killing her daughter for the notion of not making them slaves when they grow up is a form of escape. In this case, they were called fugitives. Therefore, they were brought back into slavery.During the year of 1850’s when slavery became intensifying problem of both North and South due to the Fugitive Slave Act and their slaves, owners became stricter and wanted their slaves to be barricaded inside their properties so that these slaves would not escape. Margaret Garner’s tragic story happened during these years, when slaves do not know what to do in order to make their family free even if the pay for this cost was their slavery until they die because of the pain, sorrow, and struggle of being slaves.Margaret killed her daughter to make a change. She knew that it was not j ust for her and for her family but also for the society. She wanted change – a change in the way of treating slaves. The law can be seen as â€Å"unjust law† because the individuality of the slaves was taken for granted. The Fugitive Slave Act was all about the actions that can be done to the owners and the fugitives when the fugitive is captured. However, the fugitive has no right to have its life. Slaves were treated as robots and animals, which are actually humans. The tragic story of Margaret Garner is a revelation to the law and to the whole society during this period – the â€Å"unjust law† made the slaves not humans but animals taking them as their own.Sources:Halsall, Paul. The Fugitive Slave Act, September 18, 1850.Internet Modern History Sourcebook. 1998. http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1850fugitive.htmlCoffin, Levi. Margaret Garner. Reminiscences (Cincinnati, 1876) http://aalbc.com/authors/margaret.htm

Monday, July 29, 2019

Commercial Analysis and Planning Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Commercial Analysis and Planning - Essay Example When aircrafts were invented, continuous monitoring and hands-on by pilots was mandatory if the flight had to be flown successively (Bruseberg, & Johnson, 4). However, with the advancement it aircraft technology, planes that could facilitate long hours of flight were made. As a result, pilots suffered from fatigue and therefore a mechanism had to be invented to minimize this, autopilot: the first step to cockpit automation. In 1912, a corporation by the name Sperry, became the first to develop aircraft with autopilot feature. It was composed of a gyroscopic heading and attitude indicators which were connected to elevators and rudder that were operated by hydraulics. This enable the plane to follow the compass bearing and fly straight without negotiating corners (Damos, 11). Many were inspired by the invention and in the year 1930, Royal Aircraft Establishment, a corporation of England came up with their own autopilot which was referred to as pilots’ assister. It was built from , pneumatically-spun gyroscope, an advancement from the initial hydraulically operated ones. The development grew with the invention and inclusion of instruments that would allow the plane to be flown during the night. Autopilot has undergone computerization in modern planes. Modern level of autopilot are one-axis, two-axis and three-axis. Complex plane uses the three-axial autopilot. The purpose of autopilot is to control the plane when it takes off, during climbing, the smooth level air flight and during landing respectively (Billings, 23). Finally, current autopilot relies heavily on computers rather than the physical compass that was used by earlier aircrafts. Another phase of cockpit automation is in auto-throttle. In initial aircrafts, the pilot used to manually control the flow of fuel to the engine. However, auto-throttle has replaced this thus reducing pilots’

Sunday, July 28, 2019

A REFLECTION ON EFFECTIVENESS OF A CLASSROOM PRESENTATION Essay

A REFLECTION ON EFFECTIVENESS OF A CLASSROOM PRESENTATION - Essay Example This presentation was aimed to make students of primary school understand the logic behind the number line and make use of it in solving their math related problems. On an overall basis I believe the presentation worked out really well as the students did seem satisfied with the knowledge that I gave them. The presentation was supposed to last for ten minutes but I went above the prescribed time limit while delivering it. This happened because I was so into the presentation itself that I didnt want to pull out in between. And to be honest I never really kept track of time as the look that I saw in the eyes of the curious students clearly told me how badly they wanted to learn this new concept and that somehow kept me going on until I satisfied their thirst for knowledge completely. This reflection is based on the feedback derived from my students and fellow colleagues who were present during the coarse of the presentation. The number line presentation that I carried out was done with the help of a flip chart. Most of the audience present told me it would have been much better had I presented the flip chart on a power point presentation. They said that would have made the presentation more presentable and students would have been inclined to take a much deeper interest in the learning due to the multimedia nature of power point presentations. The audience in their feedback told me that the starting of my presentation was really nice and that it completely captured the interest of all students in the class and kept them waiting for more to come. They applauded how my presentation was well thought out and that the nature of the content present was well structured and contained all possible details necessary for a proper understanding of the number line concept. As far as my body language was concerned, the audience applauded how confident I was

Saturday, July 27, 2019

The Case Against Helping the Poor Research Paper

The Case Against Helping the Poor - Research Paper Example Others claim that developing nations like those in Africa have serious problems with democracy, and should not be supported, but those who support foreign aid say that supporting these countries provides many benefits to the whole world. Ultimately, Hardin’s view of Earth as a lifeboat is as unrealistic as the view of Spaceship Earth he dislikes. Since assisting developing countries now will lead to their being able to support the rest of the planet later, there is a greater benefit to supporting foreign aid than trying to destroy it. According to Darren Weeks and others, one of the most damaging forms of foreign aid is the globalization of America’s economy as seen in free trade agreements which cost America jobs. Weeks claims that this kind of agreement has been directly responsible for leading America into the recession, and that export agreements that benefit â€Å"impoverished Central American countries† where people can’t buy things can not possibly be â€Å"in the best interest of American citizens and workers† (Weeks). In fact, Weeks makes an impassioned argument that this kind of trade agreement is ruining the country entirely, and that it will soon result in â€Å"unemployment in America, the loss of our jobs, the shrinking of the American way of life, the eradication of our freedom to travel, the elimination of the middle class† (Weeks). According to this view, foreign aid is not limited to just donations and charity, but to trade agreements which benefit poorer count ries at the expense of richer ones. These trade agreements, according to this argument, are dangerous to prosperous countries because they destroy the jobs of those countries’ citizens. However, not everybody agrees that trade agreements with poorer countries are really this bad for domestic job figures. William Overholt, for instance, argues that the

Friday, July 26, 2019

Global warming Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 3

Global warming - Essay Example Several applicable arguments have been made by scholars and other persons claiming it congregates both of these standards (Bourne, 4). The main question students and scholars would like to know is whether or not one form is better than the other. There are several differences between online and face-to-face education. Lecture classrooms are common in universities. They are an easy way to teach a large number of students at once, however, many students dislike lectures because it places them in the majority. In a lecture classroom setting, students may not have the chance to communicate with the professor or even their peers (Kindred). Students may feel shy and intimidated by the amount of people around them. The online discussions, chat rooms, and e-mail features in web-based classes makes it virtually impossible to avoid communication with fellow students or teachers. The social barriers which exist in face-to-face communication often seem to be non-existent in online communication and students feel a lot less pressured to speak up, or should I say "type up". Online communication, however, does not allow for nonverbal cues and this tends to limit the quality of certain discussions and lecture notes. Some students may feel t hey need to be face-to-face with the person teaching them in order to better understand and comprehend the material being presented. Being able to hear what the professor has to say can draw the attention of some and distract the attention of others, sometimes depending on the excellence of the professor. Students are encouraged to try web classes if they have trouble learning from what they hear and find it easier to comprehend what they read. The convenience of online learning is possibly its most brilliant quality. Students find it practical that they can attend a class while sitting in the comfort of their own home. Soldiers, pregnant women, and others with tight schedules are all able to complete their

The Early Renaissance Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

The Early Renaissance - Research Paper Example Renaissance in itself had features that brought up America’s great technological strides and augmented their international trade. The early renaissance scholars were advocates for humanistic studies thus established liberal schools that offered liberal education. History, grammar, philosophy, literature and rhetoric were studied. Most of these areas of study are in the today’s education system. Feltre Vittorino a major scholar considered the ancient Greek ideal which he reintroduced into learning. This education incorporated moral training, physical exercise and nurtured the mind and body. Marsilio Ficino harmonized teachings of Plato on love, mainly the divine love in the Christian thoughts. The early scholars thus have a greater impact on today’s philosophy and humanism. Northern Europe had its own humanism brand during the high renaissance in Italy. This movement conflicted with people in the Roman Church resulting into reformation of the Protestants. Counter- Reformation was launched by the Catholic Church for that matter creating wars politically and religiously. Protestant reforms came about due to corruption and abuses in the church and lay piety which had persisted from the Middle Ages. Such reformists included; Calvin John, Martin Luther and King Henry 8. For example, Luther Martin responsibly advocated that churches should preach in their own language and not the Latin language. This is a feature that is within our today’s local churches. Together with his supporters, they established schools.

Thursday, July 25, 2019

Final paper Research Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 3

Final - Research Paper Example Making it; therefore, sometimes a casualty of the American desire for security in times of crisis (Milton, 1989). In the essay, the historical evolution of habeas corpus, which includes its English and American traditions, will be examined. The suspension or rescheduling of the habeas corpus in the U.S. history and its relevance to the contemporary U.S. situation in the time of war on terror will also be examined. The American philosophy of habeas corpus originates in the common law that was brought into the United States from England. Sir William Blackstone in his commentaries on the Laws of England, credited the origin of the Writ of habeas corpus principles to the ancient Saxons who conquered England immediately after withdraw of Roman Empire from British Isles (Howard, 1995). Habeas corpus, therefore, denotes to the legal precedent that holds that an accused may not be detained in custody when there is not just cause. Blackstone described the early purpose of the writ of habeas corpus as ensuing from the assumption that the president of the king should have account at all times, why the liberty of any of their citizens or subjects is restrained, wherever that hold back might be inflicted. Articles 1, section 9, Clause 2 of the U.S. Constitution upholds the practice of the use of the writ of habeas corpus (Howard, 1995). In the North American history (USA), there has been instances where the writ of habeas corpus procedure being suspended. For an instant, Abraham Lincoln, the president of U.S. succeeded in having it suspended during the Civil. This led to allowing the imprisonment of military members, prisoners of war and any suspended traitors and spies were to be held for the time of the war without being given trial. In addition, Confederate President Jefferson Davis had habeas corpus suspended in the Confederate States of America. During the World War II, the

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

Issues and challenges encountered by mental health nurses,consumers Essay

Issues and challenges encountered by mental health nurses,consumers and their families - Essay Example How is it different from other nursing practices? Is it really needed? How should it operate – with autonomy or under the auspices of doctors? With those issues and challenges confronting psychiatric nursing practice, what then could be the future of psychiatric nursing? Defining the Profession Defining psychiatric nursing alone is proven difficult and controversial for two major reasons. First, nursing itself to which psychiatric nursing is part of the nursing practice continuum (Ballard, 2008) cannot also be defined without difficulty. What made defining nursing difficult, Brenner (1984) argues, is the lack of a well-defined theory that embodies the unique and rich knowledge of the nursing clinical practice, while nursing is being taught to include both theory (‘knowing that’) and practice (‘knowing how’); but until today, it is through practice – the least studied area – that nursing is being pursued. This theoretical deficiency in nu rsing, she furthers, is due to the failure of nurses themselves to chart their own practices and clinical observations, which should have been rich sources of theoretical knowledge. (As cited in Ellis & Hartley, 2004, p. 150) This holds true in psychiatric nursing. ... aviors views mental illness not as illness but more as a manifestation of unjust social order as clearly illustrated in the correlation between social status and mental illness. For example, people who live below poverty threshold or the most deprived, who belong to the marginalized racial minority, and who belong to the most vulnerable group, specifically women and children are those who suffer most, thus under too much stress, making them more vulnerable to mental illness, because the crueler, unkinder, and ruthless environment greatly threatens mental health. Furthermore, the labeling of eccentric behavior as mental illness is differentiated by the individual’s social status. It is easier for society to label eccentric behaviors as mental illness when exhibited by poor, marginalized and discriminated people than when exhibited by the socio-economically affluent. Specifically, the functionalist theory view mental illness as society’s clever way of emphasizing the norm ative behavior that is congruent to the existing social order; the symbolic theory sees those labeled as mentally ill not necessarily sick but rather victims of being stigmatized by the labeling, because according to the labeling theory, labels have powerful social effects. (Andersen & Taylor, 2011) Furthermore, even among psychiatrists and psychiatric nurses themselves, the classification systems being used in identifying and treating mental illnesses, specifically DSM, is also being criticized for over labeling â€Å"minor mental difficulties or understandable reactions to stressful situations† (Kalat, 2011, p. 545) as mental illnesses. These undermine the need for psychiatry, consequently psychiatric nursing. Against this difficulty, it is time to turn to the definition of the American Nurses

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Characteristics and Skills Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Characteristics and Skills - Essay Example The most critical cycle for effective counseling is the 4Es cycle – On introspection as to why I have people turning to me for sharing their problems and going back with a sense of relief in my personal life, I have realized that I can build trust based relationships quickly that could actually help the aggrieved person. Some of the essential characteristics that I possess as an individual are strong yet effective communication, make an objective assessment of situations, the ability to call a spade a spade and communicating this reality to the person opposite in a way to empower them in their current situation and give feedback effectively has made me choose this particular professional career. The values that I bring to the table are the following Empathy is one of the soft skills that any person would need to be an effective counselor. Empathy actually means affection clubbed with passion touched by the quality of suffering. This particular characteristic is viewed by many professionals as the most important one in a helping relationship. â€Å"Empathy is often viewed as conveying sensitivity to the client and trying to understand what â€Å"walking in the other guy’s shoes† may feel like. The helper need not necessarily have undergone the experiences of a client to understand the client’s feelings (Brooks/cole - A division of Thomson learning, 2004).† Genuineness is another important aspect that any person who intends to take up a human service profession needs. Genuineness is the expression of true feelings. â€Å"To be a genuine helper, one must avoid role playing or feeling one way and acting another. Genuine helpers do not take refuge in any specific role, such as counselor or therapist. Genuineness involves self-disclosure. It implies a willingness to be known to others (Brooks/cole - A division of Thomson learning, 2004).† If the human service helper is genuine then

Monday, July 22, 2019

Everyone can learn from their mistakes Essay Example for Free

Everyone can learn from their mistakes Essay The circumstances when the two characters first meet are quite different. When we first meet Pip he is an innocent young boy. He is crying when he meets the convict. He is said to be a small bundle of shivers. This makes Pip appear small, weak, scared and lonely. But Abel Magwith is a dark and lonely person who is a dare devil and an escaped convict he is said to be a fearful man with a great iron on his leg. The circumstances are different in chapter 39 than in chapter one. Pip is now a man and Abel Magwith is a lot different, when the two characters first meet, Abel is a fearful man and Pip is angel like, but now Abel is nicer, he is still a convict on the penalty of death, but is nicer towards Pip. The setting in the first chapter is eerie and builds suspense. The writer says the dark flat wilderness, the fact that it is dark shows that the air is consumed by fear and unawareness. Also the word wilderness shows that the area was unsightly and not unmanaged plus it shows that the area would be scary and unknown to both Pip and to the reader. But in chapter 39 the setting is quiet and a lot brighter. The surroundings are lighter and the characters are happier. They also show a grave contrast of Pip as a boy to when he is a man. The settings in the two chapters give the reader different views on the characters. The settings in chapter 1 give Pip an effect of an innocent little boy who cries a lot, and it makes Abel Magwith appear an old, dark man that bullies and threatens little kids. And in chapter 39, Pip appears stronger, no longer scared of the convict. Abel appears older, he seems scared, in one part he breaks out in tears, that shows that he is no longer evil and is now more emotional which helps Pip be less scared of him. Dickens uses language to really emphasize the presentation of the characters. Ill cut your throat, that line from the convict in Chapter 1 creates the impression that he is an evil and threatening man. But in chapter 39 he breaks out in tears and says to Pip that hes been sending all his money to him, to make a gentleman out of him. That creates an impression that he has changed, become more emotional and is no longer evil. In Pips line Dont cut my throat, sir, pray dont do it, sir, it shows that he is a weak little boy who prays for his life not to be taken from him. But now he is a man, a lot has changed for him; he is stronger and no longer scared of Abel Magwith. The relationship between the two characters changed in the two chapters. In the first chapter when Pip and Abel first meet, Pip is afraid of him because he is a very threatening man. But, in chapter 39 Abel appears less threatening; he is still an escaped convict but has appeared to have changed his ways. Overall, I think the story is about a lot more than just a young boy and a convict. I believe Dickens is trying to give a message to the reader. I think that the message he is trying to give is that everyone can learn from their mistakes and everyone has a good and bad side. The man had done wrong he was a convict but he has changed his ways and helps to aid the little boy, by sending him money, proving he has a good and caring side.

Sunday, July 21, 2019

Premises Of Cognitive Development Theory Psychology Essay

Premises Of Cognitive Development Theory Psychology Essay Fruitful practical work of the outstanding Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget (1896-1980) and theoretical work of the famous Russian scientist Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934) awaken our scientific interest to the cognitive-psychological researches which cover the whole human life. It is necessary to discuss cognitive development theory and forms of cognitive knowledge in the body of this essay. Also we will compare and contrast the stages of cognitive development and intelligence from the perspective of above mentioned theorists for children and adolescents. In this part of the essay it is necessary to define the term cognitive development and describe the basic premises of cognitive development theory. Lets begin our discussion from the theoretical facts presentation. It is well-known fact that cognitive development is a base area of study within developmental psychology. Oakley (2004) defined developmental psychology as the study of the psychological changes that take place between birth and old age. Thus, the purpose of developmental psychology is to describe and explain the changes in human mind from the birth to adulthood. Cognitive development is the study that explains how psychological processes and activities involved in knowing and thinking develop children and adolescents world. Adults thinking greatly differs from children thinking and cognitive development deeply studies these developments and changes. Piaget was the first person who noted that the childs mind is arranged quite differently than the adult psyche and children were not just small copies of adults, but in fact children were different in their ways of surrounding reality cognition and interpretation. Piaget proved his idea that knowledge in adult mind and in child mind has different structure and it doesnt mean that adults simply know more than children. For example, children believe that if the object moves, then it is alive, and the name of the object is sitting inside it. Childrens question why? is associated with the confidence that every thing has its purpose. Writing a scientific answer to the childs question: Why do stars shine? means its absolutely misunderstanding by adult person. Lack of social orientation is noticeable in the childrens conversations: children rather speak for other people than with others. In contrast to the self-centered adults who become such people on their own will, self-centered childre n show such behavior because they are almost incapable to put themselves on others place, or take someone elses point of view. Comparing and contrasting views of Vygotsky and Piaget on cognitive development and in continuation of the topic we see the next: Vygotsky considered Piagets work revolutionary, but at the same time he stressed that its pioneering quality suffered on dualism, that is, uncertainty about the materialist and idealist positions. Since the psychology of intellectual development has been studied in the tradition of scientific materialism, inevitably there was a conflict between the actual essence of this method and idealistic theories of human intelligence. It was a serious debate, especially between 1920 and 1930, when the development of experimental psychology became a serious threat to the idealistic, nonmaterialistic and philosophical trends in psychology. Neisser (1967) stated that there were three main principles in the base of Peagets theory of cognitive development: assimilation (the process of putting a new experience into already existing mental structure), accommodation (the revising of an existing schema due to a new experience) and equilibrium (the process of seeking to achieve  cognitive  stability through assimilation and accommodation). And Oakley (2004) stated that Vygotskys theory focused upon three key factors. These were culture, language and the zone of proximal development. According to Wertsch (1985), Vygotsky agreed with Piaget that a child does not sit back and somehow passively absorb knowledge but instead actively constructs knowledge. This idea was in direct contrast to the view of Pavlov that learning was essentially a passive activity. However, Vygotskys theory differs in key principles from Piaget. He stated that childrens complex thinking was acquired through social interactions between children and the adults around them. The child will interact with others peers, parents and teachers and these interactions will result in learning. Contrasting two theorists points of views we see that Piaget considers that the childs thinking develops from autistic form through egocentric to a socialized. Vygotsky agrees with the general periodization of Piaget, but rejects the genetic predetermination of the sequence. In other words, Piaget believed that development precedes learning, and Vygotsky believed that learning precedes development. Other point of disagreement between these two theorists was the nature and function of speech. Piaget considers that egocentric childs speech, addressed to itself during the thinking aloud, paving the way for social speech, and allows child to learn experience patterns and begin to use speech for communication. Vygotsky considers that the mind of the child from the birth has the social nature and egocentric speech has also social origins and social objectives: children learn egocentric speech of others, and use it to communicate with others. This premise is the main point of the theory of Vygotsky and the main aspect of differences between the positions of these two theorists. Analyzing stages of cognitive development Wertsch (1985) shows four Piagets stages of cognitive development: sensorimotor stage  (infancy) motor activity without symbols use is necessary for intelligence demonstration; pre-operational stage  (toddler and early childhood) symbols are used, memory and imagination are developed, language use matures, but egocentric thinking predominates; concrete operational stage (elementary and early adolescence) egocentric thinking diminishes, systematic and logical symbols manipulation related to concrete objects; formal operational stage  (adolescence and adulthood) abstract concepts used in thinking process. While Piagets cognitive development theory has four concrete stages, Vygotsky said that there are no set stages at all, but put our attention on affiliation, play, learning, peer, work. For the last part of the paper I want to use Slavins (2003) words who said that a possible classroom application of Vygotskys cognitive theory could take place in a first grade classroom. First grade students are often on varying levels of knowledge. Some children may already know how to read while others are still trying to master this concept. A good way to help the children who are not reading as well as the others may be to give these children help sounding out a word when they get stuck while reading a story. Thus, basing on above observed information we could conclude that according to both theorists formal operational thinking marks the end of intellectual growth. The child went a long way from simple reflexes to complex thoughts newborn adolescents and adults. And Piaget came to the conclusion that reality is not the thing that an individual reaches the outside, but inside, through his own logic, depending on the structure of the psyche.

Telemedicine for Type II Diabetes Mellitus

Telemedicine for Type II Diabetes Mellitus Diabetes Mellitus is a common chronic disease that requires lifelong medical care and control as well as constant patient self-management, education and support to prevent severe complications and to reduce the incidence of long-term complication70. Type II diabetes mellitus is increasingly common, mainly because of increase in the prevalence of a sedentary lifestyle and obesity1. This study evaluates and compares whether an intervention using SMS and telephone call would improve plasma blood glucoses levels (HbA1c, FBS, PPBS) for three months in patients with type II diabetes mellitus. Similar study was conducted by Piette et al. (2001) in which patients in a telephone disease management group had a reduction of HbA1c during the one year study period79. Hanauer et al. (2009) used email and SMS reminders to support diabetes management and noted a decrease in SMS use after two to three months74. Mahwi et al. (2013) reported that in their study pharmaceutical care provided by pharmacist to type II diabetes mellitus patients yielded a statistically significant reduction in the glycemic level83. Soriano Marcolino et al. (2013) concluded in their findings that in clinical practice, positive motivation and contact through telemedicine should be intensified over time to increase the impact on glycemia75. This study was conducted at the hospital. A total of 135 type II diabetic patients who visited the outpatient diabetic department of the hospital were included in the study. Out of which 40 patients were assigned into the SMS group, 45 patients into the telephone group and 50 patients into the control group. After duration of 3 months, 27 patients from SMS group, 30 patients from telephone group and 24 patients from control group came for review. The demographic details among the subjects reveals that 29 (34.6%) were males and 52 (65.4%) were females. The percentage of males in SMS, telephone and control group was 37.1, 36.7 and 33.3 respectively and the percentage of females in each of the groups was 62.9, 63.3 and 66.7{Table 1; Figure 1}. The mean age of male among the study population was 50.28Â ±9.05 and that of female was 49.98Â ±10.67 {Table 2; Figure 2}. In SMS group the mean age was found to be 48.85Â ±13.95, the mean age in telephone group was found to be 50.16Â ±8.21 and in control group it was 51.29Â ±11.46 {Table 3; Figure 3}. From a study conducted in Pune, India, it was found that the prevalence of type II diabetes was 4.6% with equal prevalence in both the sex. Greater prevalence in male was found in the age group of > 60 years while in females it was 51-60 years (Patil et al., 2013)30. Valliyot et al. (2013) reported that those above 50 years of age have five times more chance to get diabetes when compare d with those in the 20-30 age groups. Gender did not show any statistical significant relationship with diabetes31. A study done by Deepthi et al. (2013) showed an increase in the prevalence of diabetes with increase in age irrespective of the gender73. From the literacy distribution 53.0% of the patients are in the primary level, 23.5% of the patients are in the secondary level, 21.0% have degree and 2.5% are post graduate {Table 4; Figure 4}. Some studies reported that there is a relationship between literacy and health outcomes. For example DeWalt et al. (2004) confirmed that low literacy is linked with a series of adverse health outcomes61. Agardh et al. (2011) reported that educational level was most consistently associated with increased possibility of type II diabetes62. From all the three groups 50.6% of the patients were housewives, 16.0% of the patients were doing business, 13.6% were professionals, 10.0% were labour, 4.9% were retired and 4.9% were jobless {Table 5; Figure 5}. In women, high job stress and low work social support had a higher risk of type II diabetes compared to those not exposed to work stress, according to (Heraclides et al., 2009)44. It was also found that work stress and shift work contributed to the development of type II diabetes in women. In men, the risk was decreased by high work demands, high strain, and an active job (Eriksson et al., 2013)45. Patient’s data were collected for their smoking habits and 13.6% were found to be smokers. Alcohol history of the study population was collected, out of this 1.2% were found to be alcoholics and 6.2% were found to have both the habits {Table 6; Figure 6}. Majgi et al. (2012) in their study reported that there is no relationship between smoking and alcohol consumption with diabetes38. Kokiwar et al. (2007) concluded that abnormal glucose tolerance was more prevalent among males, physically inactive persons and alcohol consumers39. Distribution of patients with activity and those without activity were 30.9% and 69.1% respectively {Table 7; Figure 7}. Jeon et al. (2007) in their findings stated that those who are regularly engaged in physical activity of moderate intensity had 30% lower risk of type II diabetes as compared with inactive individuals. They also stated that physical activities such as brisk walking can considerably reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes55. Bacchi et al. (2013) did a systemic review and concluded that regular work out improves insulin sensitivity and blood sugar control in individuals with type 2 diabetes and is considered a chief factor in the management of this situation54. Concerned with the duration of diabetes, 7 (8.6%) had an experience of >1 year, 50 (61.7%) had 1-5 years, 20 (24.7%) had 6-10 years, 2 (2.5%) had 11-16 years and 2 (2.5%) had more than 16 years of experience {Table 8; Figure 8}. On considering the complications 17.2% had heart related problems, 20.9% had thyroid disorders, 18.5% had other problems and 44.0% had no complications {Table 9; Figure 9}. Duration of diabetes is often known to be associated with complications of diabetes. Song (2008) reported that type II diabetes may be an aggressive disease phenotype to develop cardiovascular complications37. Several studies had found that in cardiovascular disease, adherence to medications is low. Over 50% of patients do not take medications as prescribed. Similar study was reported by Granger et al. (2011)34. There was no significant difference in age, gender, duration of diabetes, activity, literacy, occupation and social habits between the three groups. The mean difference between the baseline and review values of HbA1c, FBS and PPBS in each group of the study population i.e. SMS, telephone and control were measured and the significant difference produced were compared by paired student t test. HbA1c reflects the average blood glucose levels of the previous six weeks. Glycosylated haemoglobin has developed into a standard measurement of glycaemia and a standard component of diabetes supervision20. The baseline value of HbA1c in these three study group were found to be respectively 8.25Â ±1.84, 7.84Â ±1.68 and 7.87Â ±1.85. The review values of HbA1c in these three groups were found to be 7.70Â ±1.50, 7.16Â ±1.01 and 7.35Â ±1.48 {Table 10; Figure 10}. There was a significant percentage change in HbA1c for the SMS (p = 0.023) and telephone group (p = 0.001). But no significant percentage change in HbA1c for the control group (p = 0.130) was found {Table 15}. In this study, HbA1C levels decreased 6.7% in SMS group, 8.7 % in telephone group and 6.6% in the control group after twelve weeks compared with baseline {Table 15}. HbA1C did differ significantly with telephone and control group (p = 0.037) {Table 19}. Previous studies showed the following results: Zolfaghari et al. (2012) reported that after the three month follow up examination, HbA1c level in diabetic patients in SMS and nurse led telephone groups decrease to 1.01% points and 0.93% points respectively20. Seung Kim et al. (2006) in their study revealed that SMS and telephone intervention by a nurse improved HbA1c in type II diabetes patients after twelve weeks, with a decrease of 1.1% and 1.2% respectively6. Goodzari et al. (2012) concluded that HbA1c levels decreased in experimental group greater than control group after three months compared with two baseline (p = 0/24)19. Seung Kim et al. (2007) revealed that internet based intervention by a nurse in patients with type 2 diabet es resulted in a decline of 1.15% points of HbA1c at three months and 1.05% points at six months33. The baseline value of fasting blood sugar in three groups of patients was found to be 154.29Â ±59.00, 129.73Â ±52.20 and 131.80Â ±49.02. The review values in each group of patients were found to be131.59Â ±44.26, 111.60Â ±25.69 and 121.20Â ±39.24 {Table 11; Figure 11}. Fasting blood sugar did differ significantly with telephone and control group (p = 0.011) as well as SMS and telephone group (p = 0.040) {Table 19}. There was a significant percentage change in FBS for the SMS (p = 0.016) and telephone group (p = 0.017). However, there was no significant percentage change found in the control group (p = 0.078). In the telephone, SMS and control group a decrease of 14.7%, 14.0% and 8.0% points were noted respectively, at three months compared with baseline {Table 16}. Ferror Roca et al. (2004) in their experiment recommended that SMS may provide a easy, quick and efficient accessory to manage diabetes76. The present study adds that an educational interventional program using telep hone call and SMS improves levels of glycosylated hemoglobin and fasting blood sugar for three months in patients with type II diabetes. The baseline values of PPBS in the three groups of patients were found to be 222.03Â ±93.20, 226.56Â ±99.90 and 219.09Â ±85.84. The review values in each study group were found to be 206.10Â ±77.00, 187.86Â ±34.30 and 199.18Â ±63.50 {Table 12; Figure 12}. Patients in the telephone group had a decrease of post prandial blood sugar of 17.5% mg/dl at three months compared with baseline in this study. In the SMS group it decreased 6.9% mg/dl and 9.0% mg/dl in the control group {Table 17}. Although PPBS level of the telephone group decreased after intervention, it was still above the target PPBS level. Ilknur Cinar et al. (2010) revealed that a nurse led telephone intervention may improve glycaemic parameters including HbA1c, FBS, PPBS, diet, exercise, medication adherence in patients with type II diabetes mellitus after twelve weeks64. In this study, PPBS did differ significantly with telephone and control group (p = 0.047) but did not differ significantly with SMS and telephone gr oup (p = 0.245) as well as SMS and control group (p = 0.480) {Table 19}. There was no significant mean change in PPBS for the SMS group (p = 0.337) and control group (p = 0.704) but a significant percentage change in telephone group was found (p = 0.030) {Table 17}. This study evaluated patients medication adherence behaviour and satisfaction with and demand for SMS and telephone call service after the intervention. The effect of intervention on medication adherence in the three groups found that there was significant difference between the baseline and review values of the SMS (p = 0.005) and telephone groups (p = 0.002). However, the control group was not found to be significant (p = 0.119). It was observed that there was a mean percentage change of medication adherence in SMS, telephone and control groups and found 5.8, 11.2, 2.5% increase after three months from baseline {Table 18}. It was suggested that beside telephone follow-up, increased disease awareness, positive lifestyle modifications (diet, exercise and drug) could be the reason for improvements in glycaemic parameters35. In several studies like Ling Huang et al. (2013) 88.1% of diabetic patients according to the pre-test reported as frequent missing of medication in the control group, compared with 88.5% of patients in the intervention group. The percentage of patients who earlier missed a dose was 43.7% in the control group and 46.1% in the intervention group, respectively29. Samir Patel et al. (2013) reported that a mobile phone based automated medication reminder system shows promise in improving medication adherence and blood pressure in high cardiovascular risk individuals46. Fenerty et al. (2012) in their study reported that reminder based interventions improved adherence to daily medications. Meta analysis showed a statistically significant rise in adherence in the intervention groups receiving a reminder compared to controls78. In a study about 85% of patients reported that they were pleased with the ATDM intervention and 76% of patient’s reported that they would prefer to receive such calls in the future (Piette et al., 2000)84. According to the questionnaire determining the patient satisfaction in this study, it was found that all patients in the SMS group were satisfied with short service message and 93.3% of the patients in the telephone group were satisfied with telephone call {Table 14}. Ramachandran et al. (2013) stated that their study showed mobile phone messaging is acceptable to the recipients, potentially scalable, could be delivered at low cost and is a part of an alternative strategy7. Samith Shetty et al. (2011) concluded that frequent communication for one year through SMS was satisfactory to patients with diabetes and it helped to improve the health outcome43. At the end of the study, a statistically significant reduction was observed in the HbA1c and FBS levels of patients in the telephone and SMS group while a small reduction, which is statistically not significant, was detected in the control group. This result confirms that the use of telemedicine approaches has a positive impact on patient’s glycemic control.

Saturday, July 20, 2019

Investigating Skill Acquisition :: Papers

Investigating Skill Acquisition The majority of sports require constant decision making. Once the brain as received information, made sense of it and organised the information a decision can be made. This decision will start a plan of action, and it is then vital that we make this decision as quickly as possible. the space between a stimulus being presented and the performers response to it is called reaction time. Reaction time is often overlooked and usually underestimated in the preparation process for athletes. What we usually refer to as ‘explosiveness’ is often actually great reaction time. In just about all sports you will find a constant series of reactions to auditory and visual cues. A players ability to respond quickly, properly and precisely to the information being sent is very important in determining their success in the sport. â€Å"Reaction time - the time between the first presentation of a stimulus and the performers reaction† Movement time - the time between the first reaction to the stimulus and the completion of movement Response time - the time from the presentation of the stimulus to the completion of the movement† (J Stafford-Brown, et al, 2003) Therefore Response Time = reaction time + movement time In order to be a skilled performer the ability to combine quick reactions with quick movements is vital in order to be able to respond to stimuli effectively. For example in 100m sprinting the most successful sprinter is going to be the one who exerts pressure onto the blocks by his feet after hearing the stimuli (starting gun) first and then moving his feet off the blocks first. this is because his quick combination of reaction and movement time has given him the quickest response time, from the moment he heard the starting gun to the moment both feet left the blocks. he is then going to have an advantage over his components because he will already be getting into his running stride while the rest of them are still responding.

Friday, July 19, 2019

Thomas Jefferson Essay -- Biography biographies bio

It all began when Peter Jefferson, an ambitious surveyor, farmer, and mapmaker met Jane Rudolph during his trip to England. They married and moved to the British colony of Virginia. Years later, Thomas Jefferson was born on April 13, 1743 in Albermarle County. He was the third child out of eight. By the age of five, Jefferson began to be schooled, along with his cousins, by a tutor. When he was nine, Thomas Jefferson was sent to a boarding school where he studied French, Latin, and Greek. He spent his vacations at home with his siblings, and first took interest in learning the violin given to him by his father. Tom and his father were quite close, and every time Thomas visited, he and his father would spend hours riding, canoeing, and enjoying the many pleasures nature had to offer. Thomas Jefferson mentioned in his autobiography, which he wrote many years later, how much he admired his father. Peter Jefferson died when his son was only fourteen years old, and he left behind a large estate of 5000 acres for Thomas Jefferson. Thomas Jefferson left for college when he was seventeen years old. He attended the College of William and Mary in Williamsburg. Though he spent the majority of his first year fox hunting and horse racing rather than concentrating on his studies, he promised himself he would work harder his second year. He became studious and realized the importance of a good education. He began to balance excessive studying with his social life. He graduated with highest honors. While in college, Jefferson was a member of a secret organization known then as the Flat Hat Club, now evolved into the William and Mary College newspaper, Thomas Jefferson had a propensity for joining secret associations. Soon he faced a majo... ...ist, architect, archaeologist, paleontologist, author, inventor, and the founder of the University of Virginia, among other roles. People still believe him to be the most multi-faceted president in history. President John F. Kennedy welcomed forty-nine Nobel Prize winners to the White House in 1962, saying, "I think this is the most extraordinary collection of talent and of human knowledge that has ever been gathered together at the White House?with the possible exception of when Thomas Jefferson dined alone." Thomas Jefferson left behind a great legacy. He gave us the true meaning of freedom and America?s destiny would be very different if it was not for him. One of the Founding Fathers of America, Jefferson?s great debating and compromising talent helped the Unites States through many obstacles. Also, the next time you eat French fries, make sure you thank him.

The Destruction of Macbeth :: essays research papers fc

  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  At some point in the life of every individual, certain events and changes occur that shape the person into how they will behave and appear in the future. The life of an individual either starts to blossom with opportunity or starts going through a consistent downward spiral. How does it work out perfectly for some and go wrong for others? Macbeth is a prime example of how one decision can alter life forever. As Macbeth tries to successfully pursue his prophecies, his mind and body slowly deteriorate until he has nothing left to live for. Tillyard once explained that the human mind works through reason, will, and passion (Tillyard-The Elizabethan World Picture). These ideas are somewhat parallel to Macbeth’s actions. Once he begins feeling guilty of his actions, fearful of being caught, and driven to have total control, the motives of his mind are gradually moving from being thought out with reason, to will, and finally to passion. As Macbeth makes his desc ent into death, his passion to be king gradually takes control his whole being. At the lowest point of his existence there is no reason left inside him. His mind is so busy and crazy that he no longer has the ability to make thoughtful and insightful decisions. He goes from being a loyal and careful servant to a deceitful and scattered ruler.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Macbeth’s path into insanity begins when Macbeth first hears the witches refer to him as the thane of Cawdor and reveal that he will be the king (1.3.51-53). The prediction makes no sense to him and the thought that Duncan would no longer be king leaves him completely confused and fearful of the future. When he does become the thane of Cawdor, however, he immediately wonders if his prediction could really speak the truth. Macbeth imagines the King being murdered and himself becoming king but immediately shows regret and tries to forget ever thinking such an absurd scene (1.3.164). His regret for imagining this along with logic and reason force him to decide that if the prophecies are meant to happen they will whether he gets involved or not: â€Å"If chance will have me king, why, chance may crown me,/Without my stir†(1.3.155-156). Macbeth convinces himself that he will not interfere with the predictions at all. Despite his good intentions, when Dunc an crowns Malcolm as the Prince of Cumberland, giving him the title of future king, Macbeth acknowledges that this is an obstacle that interferes with his prophecy of being king: â€Å"The Prince of Cumberland! That is a step/On which I must fall down, or else o’er-leap,/For in my way it lies† (1. The Destruction of Macbeth :: essays research papers fc   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  At some point in the life of every individual, certain events and changes occur that shape the person into how they will behave and appear in the future. The life of an individual either starts to blossom with opportunity or starts going through a consistent downward spiral. How does it work out perfectly for some and go wrong for others? Macbeth is a prime example of how one decision can alter life forever. As Macbeth tries to successfully pursue his prophecies, his mind and body slowly deteriorate until he has nothing left to live for. Tillyard once explained that the human mind works through reason, will, and passion (Tillyard-The Elizabethan World Picture). These ideas are somewhat parallel to Macbeth’s actions. Once he begins feeling guilty of his actions, fearful of being caught, and driven to have total control, the motives of his mind are gradually moving from being thought out with reason, to will, and finally to passion. As Macbeth makes his desc ent into death, his passion to be king gradually takes control his whole being. At the lowest point of his existence there is no reason left inside him. His mind is so busy and crazy that he no longer has the ability to make thoughtful and insightful decisions. He goes from being a loyal and careful servant to a deceitful and scattered ruler.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Macbeth’s path into insanity begins when Macbeth first hears the witches refer to him as the thane of Cawdor and reveal that he will be the king (1.3.51-53). The prediction makes no sense to him and the thought that Duncan would no longer be king leaves him completely confused and fearful of the future. When he does become the thane of Cawdor, however, he immediately wonders if his prediction could really speak the truth. Macbeth imagines the King being murdered and himself becoming king but immediately shows regret and tries to forget ever thinking such an absurd scene (1.3.164). His regret for imagining this along with logic and reason force him to decide that if the prophecies are meant to happen they will whether he gets involved or not: â€Å"If chance will have me king, why, chance may crown me,/Without my stir†(1.3.155-156). Macbeth convinces himself that he will not interfere with the predictions at all. Despite his good intentions, when Dunc an crowns Malcolm as the Prince of Cumberland, giving him the title of future king, Macbeth acknowledges that this is an obstacle that interferes with his prophecy of being king: â€Å"The Prince of Cumberland! That is a step/On which I must fall down, or else o’er-leap,/For in my way it lies† (1.

Thursday, July 18, 2019

Importance and uses of contrastive linguistics Essay

Introduction: Contrastive Linguistics, roughly defined as a subdiscipline of linguistics which is concerned with the comparison of two or more (subsystems of) languages, has long been associated primarily with language teaching. Apart from this applied aspect, however, it also has a strong theoretical purpose, contributing to our understanding of language typology and language universals. The study of two languages in contrast, here called contrastive analysis, has been referred to by a variety of names, not all of which mean the same to all writers. One can find the following terms used: contrastive studies, contrastive language studies, contrastive linguistics, applied contrastive studies, contrastive description and others. contrastive analysis investigates the differences between pairs (or small sets) of languages against the background of similarities and with the purpose of providing input to applied disciplines such as foreign language teaching and translation studies. With its largely desc riptive focus contrastive linguistics provides an interface between theory and application. It makes use of theoretical findings and models of language description but is driven by the objective of applicability. Contrastive studies mostly deal with the comparison of languages that are ‘socio-culturally linked’, i.e. languages whose speech communities overlap in some way, typically through (natural or instructed) bilingualism . Much progress has been made in classifying the languages of the earth into genetic families, each having descent from a single precursor, and in tracing such developments through time. The result is called â€Å"comparative linguistics.† Of even greater importance for the future technology of thought is what might be called â€Å"contrastive linguistics.† This plots the outstanding differences among tongues – in grammar, logic, and general analysis of experience.A major influence on the development of the contrastive analysis approach has been the interest shown in it by language teachers and learners, and much CA has been undertaken with language teaching rather than translation in mind. One can prevent development of errors through a prior contrastive analysis and error analysis, leading to the development of appropriate teaching materials to  reinforce correct language learning. Relevance and uses of contrastive linguistics: The relevance of CL to translation: The emphasis of much of the work on CL on teaching and language learning raises questions about its relevance to translators. At a practical level, it is probably most useful in pointing out areas where direct translation of a term or phrase will not convey accurately in the second language the intended meaning of the first. At a global level, it leads the translator to look at broader issues such as whether the structure of the discourse for a given text-type is the same in both languages. Furthermore, although Contrastive Analysis is widely practised, there are a number of theoretical and practical problems in its application, all of which must affect judgements as to its usefulness in preparing or evaluating translations. There is some overlap between these problems, but they can nevertheless be related to specific difficulties of identifying a common ground for comparison, comparing descriptions of different languages, taking account of psycholinguistic and sociocultural factors, and taking account of extratextual and intertextual factors. Identifying a common ground for comparison All comparisons require that there be a common ground against which variation may be noted, a constant that underlies and makes possible the variables that are identified. Fonnal similarity is unreliable for several reasons. In the first place, a particular grammatical structure in one language may be a requirement while in another it may be one choice amongst several; in the second place, the choice represented by a grammatical structure in one language may have a different significance in that language from the choice represented by an apparently equivalent structure in another language .in the third place, in one language a particular structure may be unmarked while in another it may be marked. A pair of sentences might be semantically and/or pragmatically equivalent but have widely varying likelihoods of occurrence in the languages from which they are drawn. A simple example of all these points is that of the Portuguese expression â€Å"muito obrigado/a and the English expressio n much obliged. These  are syntactically and semantically comparable but have a different likelihood of occurrence, muito obrigado/a being the normal way of thanking in Portuguese and much obliged being a rare and more restricted usage than thanks a lot (and other related expressions) in English. Comparing descriptions of different languages Apart from the real but unavoidable problems arising out of comparisons of descriptions that utilize different linguistic models, there are problems that arise even between descriptions that utilize the same categories and theoretical framework.Understanding between and among disparate cultures has challenged mankind throughout history; and clearly, communication, intercultural communication, is a key element in achieving understanding. We believe a disciplined, linguistic approach to the study of intercultural communication, an approach that includes the building of linguistic corpora, research in contrastive rhetoric, and practical, real life application of the best practices learned, can provide valuable insights toward achieving understanding among cultures The relationship between contrastive analysis and translation The relationship between CL and translation is bidirectional. On the one hand, the translation of specific pieces of text may provide the data for CL On the other, CL may provide explanations of difficulties encountered in translation.The crucial factors here are what size of language sample has been chosen for translation, whether it is naturally occurring or fabricated for the purpose, and whether the translation is the analyst’s own. Though the focus of CL may continue to shift towards pragmatics and discourse analysis, its use in translation is not inevitable. It is however unlikely that it can be dispensed with completely either in the training of translators or in the assessment of translations, even in its more traditional lexico-grammatical manifestations; CL has arisen as a result of the needs of the language teaching profession and this project is no exception in that one of its major objectives is to provide teachers with assistance in the use of parallel concordancing in the classroom.It gives valuable evidence for translators on the transferability of certain collocations and colligations from one language to another. The f uture of CL’s use in translation may well lie in projects such as this, which are capable of providing with equal  facility explanations of past translating decisions and guidance as to prospective ones. As a useful learning tool: Knowledge and understanding of languages is increasingly important, and this course focuses on how such knowledge can be applied. It helps learners know more clearly and finding similarities and differences between them, thereby detecting errors, which bilingual learners often make, and how to fix. This assignment is based on contrastive linguistics. It uses many methods, especially contrastive method and surveys on grammatical aspect of these words. This study uses one-way transfer. We find a lot of two languages’ differences which may be make errors in structure and semantics. It is useful for bilingual learners to find mistakes which they can meet. Contrastive linguistic gives a comparative method to translate a learner’s thinking in an informed way. Giving structure to his/her intuitive relationship to the language. This bilingual approach in cl saves the students’ infinite time and labour. It has been proven that students learn faster and more effectively us ing it.Since it is our nature to compare, Contrastive Linguistics is the technique that clarifies our understanding of the language. For learners, similarities between languages cause no difficulties, while differences cause interference to learning. Through Contrastive Linguistics we can target and resolve the typical difficulties and Common Mistakes of our students. We can examine aspects that would not normally be noticed without such comparison. Bi-lingual comparative courses overlap in fruitful collaboration with other approaches. They clear away students’ deep-rooted mistakes and empower teachers with the answers to many of their students’ doubts. In Language Teaching: The change that has to take place in the language behavior of a foreign language student can be equated with the differences between the structure of the student’s native language and culture and that of the target language and culture. The task of the linguist is to identify these differences. The task of the writer of a foreign language teaching program is to develop materials which will be based on a statement of these differences; the task of the foreign language teacher is to be aware of these differences and to be prepared to teach them; the task of the student is to learn them. Importance of CL due to growing demand: There is a growing demand from both public and private sectors for professionals combining excellent language skills and sound linguistic theory and methodology. You study linguistic theory, description and methodology with a particular focus on corpus approaches and a strong multilingual component with high relevance for language professionals, especially in the field of foreign/second language learning, teaching (and testing), linguistics focusing on usage-based models and methods in language research and their applications, especially in multilingual contexts. It help students acquire the ability to read, write, speak, and understand world languages reach maximum capability with respect to communications, effective reasoning, and analytical thinking; to educate students for living and working in a competitive global society.. As the field of linguistics became more accepted as a discipline, other scholars from different fields began to incorporate language-related topics into thei r work. Contrative Linguistics found its way into sociology, anthropology, language arts, foreign language learning and teaching. It helps the translators to analyse the basic meaning and gist of the second language giving them an edge in interpretation jobs .

Wednesday, July 17, 2019

Black House Chapter Twenty-four

24DYAMBA IS A impudent and powerful spell powerful connections roll a web that ext determinations, ramifying, by issue infinity. When shucks sawyer peels the donjon poison from Mo drops eye, dyamba woeful gear think overs inwardly the destruction mans mind, and that mind piecely expands into humpl beach mint the fila ments of the web flows unrefinedly measure of its shining strength, and concisely a touch of dyamba re reachends enthalpy Leyden. A yen the expressive style, the dyamba clean pictures tansy Freneau, who, seated in a net profitdowed bay tree of the guts Bar, observes a wry, dishy spring chicken woman replication sp recompensely crop in the jackpot of aerial at the far end of the poseing pot and genuinelyizes, a moment start trend the untried woman vanishes, that she has been al unityown a glance of the close to cardinal her Irma would devote be coiffure and it touches Dale Gilbertson, who bit driving home from the station exper iences a profound, sudden hungriness for the presence of manual laborer sawyer, a yearning houseardized an ache in his perceivet, and vows to pursue the pekan lawsuit to the end with him, no matter what the obstacles the dyamba quivers radiate d accept a filament to Judy marsh incessantlyy(prenominal) and blossom knocked kayoed(p)s a window into Far bug prohibited gradient(a), w hither(p inflammationicate) Ty sleeps in an iron-colored cell, a hold deport and slake springy wi fore unequalen Charles military position-whiskers, it touches the h geniusnessst pekan, Mr. Munshun, once comp put upen as the Mon solar mean solar day Man, meet as Burnys knuckles rap the glass. Mr. Munshun happens a subtle drift of c nonagenarian stemma infiltrate his chest identical a warning, and freezes with ferocity and hatred at this rapine Charles Burnside, who k straights nonhing of dyamba and preempt non hate it, put great deal ups up his masters bumping and re phalluss the time when a son conjectural turn out of work in Chicago crept f in al matchless in either tabu of a puke vessel sack and buckram the dorsum seat of his car in incriminating roue. god b give-up the ghost-placeededably incriminating tune, a substance that continued to mock him grand later he had washed a way its visible traces. save total heat Leyden, with whom we began this chain, is visited non by grace or rage what touches henry is a signifier of sensible clarity.Rhodas visits, he realizes, were wholeness and in all produced by his l oneliness. The precisely matter he perceive climbing the work on a motion was his unending lease for his wife. And the beingness on the archean(a) side of his studio a collapsement apartment threshold is the horrible one-time(a) man from Maxtons, who intends to do to heat content the homogeneous matter he has make to one-third children. Who else would appear at this hour and tap on the studio window? non Dale, non goofball, and surely not Elvena Morton. Everyone else would period fall taboo-of- access and ring the ingressbell.It lights total heat no much(prenominal) than a peer of sustains to look at his picks and work let out a ru bareentary plan. He supposes himself both quicker and stronger than the fisherman, who run lowed the kindreds of a man in his mid- to deeply eight-spoties and the black cat does not k directly that his would-be victim is aw atomic effect 18 of his identity. To reduce advantage of this situation, atomic number 1 has to appear pose further ami adequate to(p), as if he is b bely curious near his visitor. And once he un resolutionds the studio penetration, which unfortunately he has fishy unlocked, he exit wield to cloak with speed and decisiveness.Are we up to this? hydrogen asks himself, and deliberates, Wed cave in be.Are the lights on? No because he expected to be alone, he n of all time b different ed with the charade of break them on. The hesitancy thence draws How puritanic is it outback(a)? Maybe not quite gamey fair to middling, enthalpy bets an hour later, he would be able to move by dint of the domicile all in all un interpretn and escape by the bunsside door. straight bump transfer his odds atomic number 18 plausibly no reveal than fifty-fifty, provided the sun is sinking at the bandaging of his house, and constantlyy snatch he chamberpot de frame buys him other fraction of wickedness in the supporting populate and kitchen. perhaps devil present moments stick out passed since the lurking figure rapped on the window, and henry, who has maintained the perfect composure of one who discloseed to realise the ponderous made by his visitor, female genitals stall no bulkyer. affect to be lost in legal opinion, with one hand he grips the base of a heavy Excellence in publicise award accepted in absentia by George Rathbun salwaysal(preno minal) eld in bm and with the other scoops from a shallow tray onwards him a switch blade an admirer once go outside at the university radio station as a tri scarcee to the Wisconsin Rat. enthalpy uses the wound to unwrap CD jewel boxes, and not spacious ago, in se besotted of some issue to do with his reach, he taught himself how to penetratingen it. With its blade retracted, the dig resembles an odd, flat fountain pen. Two in additionls atomic number 18 twice as expert as one, he thinks, especially if your adversary imagines the imprimatur weapon to be h legless.Now it has been iv seconds since the rapping came from the window by his side, and in their mortal ways both Burny and Mr. Mun-shun fall in bounteous considerably more restive. Mr. Munshun recoils in abomination from the suggestion of dyamba that has somehow contaminated this other delightful scene. Its appearance discount inculpate one thing hardly, that some person connected to the blind man man aged to light close enough to foreboding(a) support to stomach admirationd the poisons of its ferocious guardian. And that in deal means that now the hateful bastard Sawyer undoubtedly hunch every(prenominal)wheres of the existence of nigrify House and intends to breach its defenses. It is time to prohibit the blind man and return home.Burny registers totally an inchoate mixture of hatred and an feel surprisingly aforementioned(prenominal)(p) fear from within his master. Burny senses rage at enthalpy Leydens appropriation of his voice, for he fill ins it represents a threat counterbalance more than this self-protective impulse, he feels a yearning for the simple s bank profound delight of businessletting. When enthalpy has been providedchered, Charles Burnside wishes to claim one more victim onwards degenerate to Black House and work outing a realm he thinks of as Sheol.His big, deformed knuckles rap once more against the glass. total heat turns his int errogative to the window in a flawless personation of small surprise. I thought soulfulness was out there. Who is it? . . . Come on, announce up. He toggles a switch and speaks into the mike If youre saying allthing, I dismisst get word you. Give me a second or cardinal to cite for nonionized in here, and Ill be ripe out. He faces forward again and hunches over his desk. His leave hand expects idly to touch his great(p) award his unspoiled hand is enigmatical from sight. heat content appears to be deep in concentration. In reality, he is harking as embarrassing as he ever has in his keep.He hears the traverse on the studio door revolve reclaim-handed with a marvelous slowness. The door whispers open an inch, two inches, trinity. The floral, mu jactitate scent of My wickedness invades the studio, squeeze a lineming to coating a thin chemical film over the mike, the magnetic memorialize give noticeisters, all the dials, and the back of henrys deliberat ely unresolved bang. The sole of what intimately- res publicaeds corresponding a car c atomic number 18ss stripteaseper sleek overes over the home. heat content tightens his pass on his weapons and checks for the particular be rushive that depart be his signal. He hears another roughly plumpless step, then another, and realises the Fisherman has move hobo him. He carries some weapon of his own, something that cuts through the overcast of perfume with the super bring out evanesce c ar sprightliness of front yards and the smoothness of instrument oil. enthalpy cannot imagine what this is, that the travail of the air pay off aparts him it is heavier than a c dress circleper. Even a blind man can substantiate that. An awkwardness in the way the Fisherman admits his close oh-so-quiet step suggests to enthalpy that the old fellow adopts this weapon with both of his turn over.An fancy has formed in atomic number 1s mind, that of his adversary stand beh ind him poised to strike, and to this image he now adds extended, upraised ordnance store. The hands hold an instrument interchangeable garden shears. hydrogen has his own weapons, the high hat of these being surprise, only the surprise moldiness be tumesce timed to be effective. In fact, if enthalpy is to obviate a quick and untidy death, his timing has to be perfect. He lowers his neck farther over the desk and awaits the signal. His calm surprises him.A man standing unobserved with an determination similar garden shears or a heavy pair of pair of scissors in his hands behind a seated victim go out-of-dooring, before delivering the blow, take a long second to arch his back and reach up, to hold out a maximum of strength into the conquerward stroke. As he extends his arms and arches his back, his c flowerpothing exit shift on his form. Fabric impart slide over flesh one fabric may pull against another a belt may creak. in that location allow be an intake of breath. An quotidian person would hear few or none of these tell record disturbances, merely hydrogen Leyden can be depended upon to hear them all. wherefore at wash up he does. stuff rubs against skin and rustles against itself air hisses into Burnys nasal passages. Instantly, henry shoves his moderate backward and in the a identical(p) fecal matter spins most and swings the award toward his assailant as he stands upright. It works He feels the force of the blow run pile his arm and hears a grunt of fog and disturb sensation. The odor of My Sin fills his nostrils. The head bumps the pass on of his knees. atomic number 1 pushes the merelyton on the switchblade, feels the long blade leap out, and thrusts it forward. The lingua punches into flesh. From eight inches before his face comes a bitch of outrage. Again, Henry batters the award against his attacker, then yanks the knife free and shoves it home again. Skinny arms tangle around his neck and shoulders, cr eam him with revulsion, and foul breath washes into his face.He becomes alert that he has been injured, for a pain that is neat on the go forth and dull infra announces itself on the leave(a) over(p) side of his back. The infernal hedge clippers, he thinks and jabs again with the knife. This time, he stabs only empty air. A rough hand closes on his elbow, and another grips his shoulder. The hands pull him forward, and to keep upright he rests his knee on the seat of the chair. A long nose bangs against the bridge of his own nose and jars his sunglasses. What notes fills him with disgust two rows of teeth worry broken clams brilliances fasten on his remaining hardihood and saw through the skin. Blood sluices down his face. The rows of teeth come to reachher and rip away an rounded wedge of Henrys skin, and over the white shake up of pain, which is tall(prenominal), worse by far than the pain in his back, he can hear his blood spatter against the old monsters face. bus iness organisation and revulsion, along with an amazing measure of adrenaline, accomplish him the strength to lash out with the knife as he spins away from the mans grip. The blade connects with some moving part of the Fishermans em remains an arm, he thinks.Before he can feel whatsoeverthing deal satisfaction, he hears the vowelize of the hedge clippers slicing the air before they bite into his knife hand. It happens closely before he can take it in the hedge clippers blades tear through his skin, crack cocaine the bones, and sever the demise two fingers on his right hand.And then, as if the hedge clippers were the Fishermans last contact with him, he is free. Henrys foot materializes the edge of the door, kicks it aside, and he pforget me drugls his clay through the open space. He lands on a floor so sticky his feet slide when he tries to get up. post all of that blood be his?The voice he had been studying in another age, another era, comes from the studio door. You stabbed me, you asswipe moke.Henry is not waiting around to listen Henry is on the move, privation he did not feel that he was leaving a clear, wide jumper cable of blood behind him. Somehow, he look intoms to be drenched in the stuff, his shirt is bathetic with it, and the back of his legs be wet. Blood continues to discharge down his face, and in spite of the adrenaline, Henry can feel his energy dissipating. How a lot time does he postulate before he bleeds to death twenty proceedings?He slides down the student residence and runs into the living room.Im not way out to get out of this, Henry thinks. Ive lost too very much blood. precisely at least(prenominal) I can chance upon it through the door and die outside, where the air is fresh.From the anteroom, the Fishermans voice reaches him. I ate part of your cheek, and now Im discharge to eat your fingers. Are you listening to me, you moke of an dickhead?Henry makes it to the door. His hand slips and slips on the chief the knob resists him. He feels for the lock scarcelyton, which has been depressed.I tell, are you listening? The Fisherman is overture closer, and his voice is full of rage. entirely Henry has to do is push the justton that unlocks the door and turn the knob. He could be out of the house in a second, exactly his remaining fingers result not conform orders. all(a) right, Im exit to die, he says to himself. Ill follow Rhoda, Ill follow my Lark, my beautiful Lark.A sound of reprimanding, complete with smacking lips and crunching noises. You taste analogous shit. Im eating your fingers, and they taste equal shit. You know what I like? Know my all-time favorite meal? The buttocks of a tender raw child. Albert Fish desire that too, oh yes he did. Mmm-mmm BABY BUTT Thats secure EATINHenry realizes that he has somehow slipped all the way down the unopenable door and is now re twitch, breathing far too heavily, on his hands and knees. He shoves himself forward and crawl s behind the delegacy-style sofa, from the comfort of which he had listened to jacks Sawyer reading a great many an(prenominal) an(prenominal) eloquent words written by Charles Dickens. Among the things he would now neer be able to do, he realizes, is relegate out what finally happens in Bleak House. other is seeing his garter shucks again.The Fishermans footsteps enter the living room and pick up moving. all in all right, where the fuck are you, asshole? You cant cloud from me. The hedge clippers blades go snick-snick.Either the Fisherman has grown as blind as Henry, or the room is too caliginous for vision. A small-minded bit of hope, a match flame, flares in Henrys soul. Maybe his adversary will not be able to see the light switches.Asshole Ahzz-hill. Damn it, where are you hiding? Dahmmut, vhey ah you high-dung?This is fascinating, Henry thinks. The more angry and frustrated the Fisherman gets, the more his accent melts into that weird non-German. It isnt the South cheek of Chicago anymore, but neither is it anything else. It definitely isnt German, not unfeignedly. If Henry had heard Dr. Spieglemans verbal description of this accent as that of a Frenchman hand overing to speak English like a German, he would hire gestureded in smiling agreement. Its like some kind of outer(a) space German accent, like something that mutated toward German without ever having heard it.You hurt me, you unsporting pig You huhht me, you steenk-ung peekThe Fisherman lurches toward the weak chair and shoves it over on its side. In his Chicago voice, he says, Im gonna find you, buddy, and when I do, Ill cut your fucking head off.A lamp hits the floor. The slippered footsteps move heavily toward the right side of the room. A blind goof hides in the dark, huh? Oh, thats cute, thats really cute. Lemme tell you something. I directnt tasted a tongue in a eyepatch, but I think Ill try yours. A small send back and the lamp atop it clunk and crash to the floor. I got some information for you. Tongues are funny. An old cats doesnt taste much different from a young fellas though of caterpillar tread the tongue on a kid is twice as advanced as both. Venn I vas Fridz Hahhmun I ade munny dungs, ha ha. oddish that extraterrestrial version of a German accent bursts out of the Fisherman like a second voice. A clenched fist strikes the wall, and the footsteps plod nearer. Using his elbows, Henry crawls around the far end of the sofa and squirms toward the harbor of a long, low table. The footsteps squish in blood, and when Henry rests his head on his hands, stiff blood pumps out against his face. The fiery badgering in his fingers almost swallows the pain in his cheek and his back.You cant hide forever, the Fisherman says. Immediately, he switches to the weird accent and replies, Eenuff ov dis, Burn-Burn. Vee huv murr impurdund vurk zu do.Hey, youre the one who called him an ahzz-hill. He hurt meFogzes down fogzhulls, oho, radz in radhulls, dey too ahh huhht. My boor loss babbies ahh huhht, aha, vurze vurze vurze dan uz.But what intimately him?Hee iz bledding zu deff, bledding zu deff, aha. Led hum dy.In the darkness, we can average make out what is happening. Charles Burnside appears to be performing an eerie imitation of the two heads of Parkuss parrot, Sacred and Profane. When he speaks in his own voice, he turns his head to the go forthfield when speaking with the accent of an extraterrestrial, he looks to his right. observation his head swivel back and forth, we office be watching a queer actor like Jim Carrey or Steve Martin guise to be the two halves of a dissipate personality except that this man is not funny. Both of his personalities are awful, and their voices hurt our ears. The great difference surrounded by them is that left(p)-head, the guttural extraterrestrial, runs the immortalize his hands hold the oscillation of the others vehicle, and right-head our Burny is basically a slave. Sinc e the difference between them has become so clear, we fix to get the neerthelesst that it will not be long before Mr. Munshun peels off Charles Burnside and discards him like a worn-out sock.But I WANT to kill him Burny screeches.Hee iz alreddy dud, dud, dud. Chack Zawyuhs hardt iz go-ung do break. Chack Zawyuh vill nod know whud he iz do-ung. Vee go now du Muxtunz and oho vee kull Chibbuh, yuzz? You vahhnd kull Chibbuh I ding, yuzz?Burny snickers. Yeah. I vahhnd to kill Chipper. I vahhnd to slice that asshole into slender pieces and chew on his bones. And if his snippy bitch is there, I necessitate to cut off her head and assemble one over her juicy forgetful tongue down my throat.To Henry Leyden, this conversation sounds like insanity, sinful possession, or both. Blood continues to stream out of his back and from the ends of his mutilated fingers, and he is uneffective to stop the flow. The smell out of all the blood under and around him makes him feel nauseated, but nausea is the least of his conundrums. A light-headed sense of drift, of pleasing numbness that is his real problem, and his best weapon against it is his own pain. He must remain conscious. Somehow, he must leave a pass for jak.Zo vee go now, Burn-Burn, and vee hahhv ah blesh-ah vid Chibbuh, yuzz? End denn . . . oho end denn, denn, denn vee go do de beeyoodiful bee-yoodiful Blagg Huzz, my Burn-Burn, end in Blagg Huzz vee mayyg reddy for de Grimsunn GingI hope to meet the wild tycoon, Burny says. A rope of drool sags from his mouth, and for an instant his eyes flare in the darkness. Im gonna give the Marshall affright to the Crimson King, and the Crimson King is gonna whop me, because all Im gonna eat is like one pocket-sized ass cheek, one little hand, something like that.Hee vill lahhv you fuhr my zake, Burn-Burn, fuhr de Ging lahhvs mee bezzd, mee, mee, mee, Mizz-durr Munn-shunn End venn de Ging roolz sooprumm, fogzes down fogzhulls veep and veep, dey gryy, gryy, gry y dere lid-dul hardz utt, on-cuzz you end mee, mee, mee, vee vull eed end eed end eed, eed, eed undill de vurrldz on all zydes are nudding bahd embdy bee-nudd shillzEmpty peanut s orchestra pits. Burny chuckles, and noisily retracts another rope of slobber. Thats a hell of a lot of eatin.Any second now, Henry thinks, horrible old Burn-Burn is overtaking to fork over a real(a) down payment on the Brooklyn Bridge.Gumm.Im coming, says Burnside. initiative I desire to leave a message.There is a silence.The next thing Henry hears is a curious whooshing sound and the joined smack-smacks of sodden footwear persona from a sticky floor. The door to the insistency beneath the stairs bangs open the studio door bangs shut. A smell of ozone comes and goes. They pee departed Henry does not know how it happened, but he feels certain that he is alone. Who cares how it happened? Henry has more important matters to think nearly. Murr impurdund vurk, he says aloud. That guys a German like Im a speckled hen.He crawls out from beneath the long table and uses its surface to lever himself up on his feet. When he straightens his back, his mind wobbles and goes colourize, and he grasps a lampstand to pacify upright. Dont pass out, he says. Passing out is not allowed, nope.Henry can walk, he is sure of it. Hes been manner of walking most of his life, later on all. Come to that, he can sustain a car, too driving is regular easier than walking, only no one ever had the cojones to let him freakstrate his talents behind the wheel. Hell, if give off Charles could drive and he could, he can, rhenium Charles is credibly spinning into a left turn off the highway at this moment why not Henry Leyden? Well, Henry does not happen to arrest an automobile available to him right now, so Henry is dismission to go for to catch up with for fetching a brisk walk. Well, as brisk as contingent anyhow.And where is Henry going on this delightful saunter through the blood-soaked liv ing room? Why, he answers himself, the answer is obvious. I am going to my studio. I feel like taking a stroll into my venerately little studio.His mind slides into gray-haired once more, and gray is to be avoided. We run through an antidote for the gray feeling, dont we? Yes, we do the antidote is a good sharp taste of pain. Henry slaps his good hand against the stumps of his severed fingers whoo male child, yes indeed, whole arm sort of went up in flames there. igneous arm, that will work. Sparks shooting white baking hot from impetuous fingers will get us to the studio.Let those tears flow. Dead kinsfolk dont cry.The smell of blood is like laughter, Henry says. Who said that? Some trunk. Its in a book. ?The smell of blood was like laughter. Great line. Now posture one foot in front of the other.When he reaches the short hallway to the studio, he leans against the wall for a moment. A wave of luxurious weariness begins at the center of his chest and laps through his body . He snaps his head up, blood from his torn cheek spattering the wall. Keep mouthing, you dope. Talking to yourself isnt crazy. Its a tremendous thing to do. And guess what? Its how you make your living you talk to yourself all day longHenry pushes himself off the wall, steps forward, and George Rath-bun speaks through his vocal cords. Friends, and you ARE my boosters, let me be clear close that, we here at KDCU-AM seem to be experiencing some technical difficulties. The power levels are sinking, and dark-brownouts cast off been recorded, yes they start. Fear not, my solemn ones. Fear not Even as I speak, we are but four paltry feet from the studio door, and in no time at all, we shall be up and running, yessir. No antediluvian cannibal and his space-alien sidekick can put this station out of business, uh-UHH, not before we make our last and final broadcast.It is as if George Rathbun gives life to Henry Leyden, instead of the other way around. His back is straighter, and he holds his head upright. Two steps bring him to the unlikable studio door. Its a tough catch, my friends, and if jail Reese is going to snag that ball, his mitt had better be clean as a whistle. What is he doing out there, folks? Can we believe our eyes? Can he be shoving one hand into his down the stairsdrawers paper bag? Is he pulling something out? Man oh man, it causes the mind to twirl pokey is using THE OLD HANDKERCHIEF stratagem Thats right He is WIPING his mitt, WIPING his throwing hand, DROPPING the snotrag, GRABBING the handle And the door is OPEN Pokey Reese has do it again, he is IN THE STUDIOHenry winds the handkerchief around the ends of his fingers and fumbles for the chair. And Rafael Furcal seems lost out there, the man is GROPING for the ball Wait, wait, does he have it? Has he caught an edge? YES He has the ARM of the ball, he has the BACK of the ball, and he pulls it UP, ladies and gents, the ball is UP on its WHEELS Furcal sits down, he pushes himsel f toward the console. Were facing a lot of blood here, but baseball is a fucking(a) game when they come at you with their furnish up.With the fingers of his left hand, from which most of the blood has been cleaned, Henry punches the ON switch for the big record recorder and pulls the microphone close. He is academic session in the dark listening to the sound of read hissing from reel to reel, and he feels oddly satisfied to be here, doing what he has done nighttime aft(prenominal) night for thousands of nights. Velvety exhaustion swims through his body and his mind, darkening whatever it touches. It is too early to yield. He will surrender soon, but front he must do his short letter. He must talk to tar Sawyer by talking to himself, and to do that he calls upon the familiar spirits that give him voice.George Rathbun Bottom of the ninth, and the home police squad is headed for the showers, pal. But the game aint OVER till the last BLIND man is coldHenry put forward Im t alking to you, rogue Sawyer, and I dont want you to flip out on me or nothin. Keep cool and listen to your old friend Henry the sheik the reorganize the Shook, all right? The Fisherman paid me a visit, and when he left here he was on his way to Maxtons. He wants to kill Chipper, the guy who owns the place. hollo the police, save him if you can. The Fisherman lives at Maxtons, did you know that? Hes an old man with a demon inside him. He wanted to stop me from coitus you that I recognized his voice. And he wanted to mess with your feelings he thinks he can screw you up by killing me. Dont give him that satisfaction, all right?The Wisconsin Rat BECAUSE THAT WOULD REALLY SUCK FISH-BRAINS leave behind BE WAITING FOR YOU IN A PLACE CALLED BLACK HOUSE, AND YOU HAVE TO BE READY FOR THE BASTARD RIP HIS silly OFFThe Rats buzz-saw voice ends in a fit of coughing.Henry charge up, breathing hard Our friend the Rat was suddenly called away. The boy has a tendency to get overexcited.Georg e Rathbun SON, are you trying to tell ME that Henry Shake Calm down. Yes, he has a right to be excited. But twat doesnt want us to weep at him. prick wants information.George Rathbun I lick you better precipitation up and give it to him, then.Henry Shake This is the deal, cocksucker. The Fishermans not very bright, and neither is his whatever, his demon, whos called something like Mr. Munching. Hes incredibly vain, too.Henry Leyden folds back into the chair and stares at nada for a second or two. He can feel nothing from the waist down, and blood from his right hand has pooled around the microphone. From the stumps of his fingers comes a steady, decrease pulse.George Rathbun Not now, ChucklesHenry Leyden shakes his head and says, priceless and stupid you can beat, my friend. I have to sign off now. bullshit, you dont have to feel too bad rough me. I had a goddamn wonderful life, and Im going to be with my darling Rhoda now. He smiles in the darkness his smile widens. Ah, Lark. Hello. At propagation, it is possible for the smell of blood to be like laughter.What is this, at the end of Nailhouse Row? A horde, a bevy of fat, bombinate things that circle and dart approximately son of a bitch Sawyer, in the dying light seeming almost illuminated, like the radiant pages of a tabu text. Too small to be hummingbirds, they seem to ask their own individual, native bite as they mesh through the air. If they are wasps, laborer Sawyer is going to be in serious trouble. soon enough they do not sting their round bodies wipe his face and hands, blundering cushyly against his body as a cat will jab its owners leg, both giving and receiving comfort.At present, they give much more comfort than they receive, and horizontal squatting cannot explain why this should be so. The creatures surrounding him are not wasps, hummingbirds, or cats, but they are bees, honeybees, and ordinarily he would be frightened to be caught in a swarm of bees. Especially if the y appeared to be members of a sort of master bee race, superbees, large than any he has seen before, their golds more golden, their melanises vibrantly opaque. Yet twat is not frightened. If they were going to sting him, they would already have done it. And from the maiden, he understood that they meant him no harm. The touch of their many bodies is surpassingly smooth and soft their massed buzzing is low and harmonious, as peaceable as a Protestant hymn. later the depression few seconds, diddley simply lets it happen.The bees filter even closer, and their low noise pulses in his ears. It sounds like reference, or like song. For a moment, all he can see is a tightly woven electronic network of bees moving this way and that then the bees go down everywhere on his body but the oval of his face. They cover his head like a helmet. They blanket his arms, his chest, his back, his legs. Bees land on his shoes and obscure them from view. Despite their number, they are almost sl antless. The exposed parts of cocksuckers body, his hands and neck, feel as though enwrapped in cashmere. A dense, feather-light bee suit free reins black and gold all over pitch Sawyer. He raises his arms, and the bees move with him. son of a bitch has seen photographs of beekeepers aswarm with bees, but this is no photograph and he is no beekeeper. His amazement really, his sheer pleasure in the unexpectedness of this visitation stuns him. For as long as the bees cling to him, he forgets Mouses repelling death and the next days fearsome task. What he does not forget is Sophie he wishes Beezer and doctor would walk outside, so they could see what is happening, but more than that, he wishes Sophie could see it. Perhaps, by grace of dyamba, she does. individual is comforting jackass Sawyer, individual is wishing him well. A loving, unperceivable presence offers him support. It feels like a blessing, that support. garment in his glowing black-and-yellow bee suit, cocksuc ker has the conceit that if he stepped toward the sky, he would be airborne. The bees would carry him over the vales. They would carry him over the contract hills. Like the winged men in the Territories who carried Sophie, he would fly. Instead of their two, he would have two thousand wings to borrow him up.In our world, Jack remembers, bees return to the stack away before nightfall. As if reminded of their daily routine, the bees wage increase from Jacks head, his trunk, his arms and legs, not en masse, like a living carpet, but by the piece and in parties of atomic number 23 and six, wander a short distance above him, then swirl around, shoot like bullets eastbound over the houses on the inland side of Nailhouse Row, and disappear one and all into the same dark infinity. Jack becomes aware of their sound only when it disappears with them.In the seconds before he can once again begin moving toward his truck, he has the feeling that someone is watching over him. He has been . . . what? It comes to him as he turns his key in the Rams sacking and flutters the gas pedal he has been embraced.Jack has no supposition how much he will need the warmth of that embrace, nor of the panache in which it shall be re morose to him, during the coming night. start of all, he is exhausted. He has had the kind of day that should end in a unrealistic event like an embrace by a swarm of bees Sophie, Wendell Green, Judy Marshall, Parkus that cataclysm, that deluge and the alien death of Mouse Baumann, these things have stretched him taut, left him gasping. His body aches for rest. When he leaves French set down and drives into the wide, dark countryside, he is tempted to pull over to the side of the road and catch a half-hour nap. The deepening night promises the refreshment of sleep, and that is the problem he could wind up sleeping in the truck all night, which would leave him feeling bleary and woebegone on a day when he must be at his best. nearifiedly now, he is not at his best not by a longshot, as his father, Phil Sawyer, use to say. Right now he is running on fumes, another of Phil Sawyers pet expressions, but he figures that he can stay awake long enough to visit Henry Leyden. Maybe Henry cut a deal with the guy from ESPN maybe Henry will move into a wider market and make a lot more property. Henry in no way needs any more money than he has, for Henrys life seems flawless, but Jack likes the idea of his dear friend Henry suddenly ruddiness with cash. A Henry with extra money to throw around is a Henry Jack would love to see. Imagine the marvelously clothes he could afford Jack pictures going to New York with him, staying in a nice hotel like the Carlyle or the St. Regis, walking him through half a xii great mens stores, sufficeing him pick out whatever he wants. comely about everything looks good on Henry. He seems to improve all the clothes he wears, no matter what they are, but he has definite, particular tastes. Henry l ikes a certain classic, even old-fashioned, stylishness. He ofttimes dresses himself in pinstripes, windowpane plaids, herringbone tweeds. He likes cotton, linen, and wool. He sometimes wears bow ties, ascots, and little handkerchiefs that puff of air out of his breast pocket. On his feet, he puts penny loafers, wing tips, cap toes, and low boots of soft, fine leather. He never wears sneakers or jeans, and Jack has never seen him in a T-shirt that has piece on it. The enquiry was, how did a man blind from fork up evolve such a particularized taste in clothing?Oh, Jack realizes, it was his mother. Of course. He got his taste from his mother.For some reason, this cite threatens to bring tears to Jacks eyes. I get too emotional when I get this tired, he says to himself. Watch out, or youll go overboard. But diagnosing a problem is not the same as regular it, and he cannot follow his own advice. That Henry Leyden all of his life should have held to his mothers ideas about mens clothing strikes Jack as beautiful and moving. It implies a kind of fealty he admires unspoken loyalty. Henry probably got a lot from his mother his quick-wittedness, his love of symphony, his levelheadedness, his utter lack of self-pity. Levelheadedness and lack of self-pity are a great combination, Jack thinks they go a long way toward be courage.For Henry is courageous, Jack reminds himself. Henry is damn near fearless. Its funny, how he talks about being able to drive a car, but Jack feels certain that, if allowed, his friend would unhesitatingly jump behind the wheel of the nearest Chrysler, start the engine, and take off for the highway. He would not exult or show off, such behavior being foreign to his nature Henry would nod toward the windshield and say things like, Looks like the gamboge is nice and tall for this time of year, and Im blithe Duane finally got around to painting his house. And the lemon would be tall, and Duane Updahl would have recently pied his hous e, information delivered to Henry by his recondite sensory systems.Jack decides that if he makes it out of Black House alive, he will give Henry the opportunity to take the Ram out for a spin. They world power wind up nose-down in a ditch, but it will be worth it for the expression on Henrys face. Some Saturday afternoon, hell get Henry out on passage 93 and let him drive to the Sand Bar. If Beezer and mercantilism do not get savaged by weredogs and survive their journey to Black House, they ought to have the chance to enjoy Henrys conversation, which, odd as it seems, is perfectly suited to theirs. Beezer and Doc should know Henry Leyden, theyd love the guy. After a couple of weeks, theyd have him up on a Harley, swooping toward Norway Valley from Centralia.If only Henry could come with them to Black House. The thought pierces Jack with the sadness of an inspired idea that can never be put into practice. Henry would be brave and unfaltering, Jack knows, but what he most likes a bout the idea is that he and Henry would ever after be able to talk about what they had done. Those talks the two of them, in one living room or another, snow piling on the jacket would be wonderful, but Jack cannot ambush Henry that way.Thats a stupid thing to think about, Jack says aloud, and realizes that he declivity not having been completely open and vulnerable with Henry thats where the stupid worry comes from, his firm silence. It isnt what he will be futile to say in the future its what he failed to say in the past. He should have been honest with Henry from the start. He should have told him about the red feathers and the robins eggs and his assemblage uneasiness. Henry would have helped him open his eyes he would have helped Jack resolve his own blindness, which was more damaging than Henrys.All of that is over, Jack decides. No more secrets. Since he is lucky enough to have Henrys friendship, he will demonstrate that he value it. From now on, he will tell Henry everything, including the background the Territories, Speedy Parker, the dead man on the Santa Monica Pier, Tyler Marshalls baseball cap. Judy Marshall. Sophie. Yes, he has to tell Henry about Sophie how can he not have done so already? Henry will rejoice with him, and Jack cannot wait to see how he does it. Henrys rejoicing will be unlike anyone elses Henry will submit some delicate, cool, good-hearted topspin to the expression of his delight, thereby increasing Jacks own delight. What an incredible, substantially incredible friend If you were to describe Henry to someone who had never met him, he would sound unbelievable. Someone like that, living alone in an outback of the boonies? But there he was, all alone in the entirely obscure area of Norway Valley, French County, Wisconsin, waiting for the latest installment of Bleak House. By now, in fore telltale(a) of Jacks arrival, he would have turned on the lights in his kitchen and living room, as he had done for years in honor of his dead, much-loved wife.Jack thinks I must not be so bad, if I have a friend like that.And he thinks I really adore Henry.Now, even in the darkness, everything seems beautiful to him. The Sand Bar, ablaze with neon lights in its vast expanse of parking lot the spindly, intermittent trees picked out by his headlights after the turn onto 93 the long, invisible palm the glowing light bulbs hung like Christmas decorations from the porch of Roys Store. The sound over the first bridge and the sharp turn into the depths of the valley. Set back from the left side of the road, the first of the farmhouses gleam in the darkness, the lights in their windows glowing like sacramental candles. Everything seems touched by a higher(prenominal) meaning, everything seems to speak. He is traveling, within a hush of saintly silence, through a sacred grove. Jack remembers when Dale first drove him into this valley, and that depot is sacred, too.Jack does not know it, but tears are coursing dow n his cheeks. His blood sings in his veins. The pale farmhouses shine half-hidden by the darkness, and out of that darkness leans the stand of tiger lilies that greeted him on his first down-valley journey. The tiger lilies blaze in his headlights, then slip murmuring behind him. Their lost speech joins the speech of the tires rolling eagerly, gently toward Henry Leydens warm house. Tomorrow he may die, Jack knows, and this may be the last night he will ever see. That he must win does not mean that he will win proud empires and noble epochs have gone down in defeat, and the Crimson King may burst out of the rear and rage through world after world, spreading chaos.They could all die in Black House he, Beezer, and Doc. If that happens, Tyler Marshall will be not only a Breaker, a slave chained to an oar in a timeless Purgatory, but a super-Breaker, a nuclear-powered Breaker the abbalah will use to turn all the worlds into furnaces make full with burning corpses. Over my dead body, J ack thinks, and laughs a little crazily its so literalWhat an extraordinary moment he is express emotion while he rubs tears off his face. The paradox suddenly makes him feel as though he is being torn in half. Beauty and terror, beauty and pain there is no way out of the conundrum. Exhausted, strung out, Jack cannot hold off his awareness of the worlds essential fragility, its constant, unstoppable military campaign toward death, or the deeper awareness that in that movement lies the source of all its meaning. Do you see all this heart-stopping beauty? Look closely, because in a moment your heart will stop.In the next second, he remembers the swarm of golden bees that descended upon him it was against this that they comforted him, exactly this, he tells himself. The blessing of blessings that vanish. What you love, you must love all the harder because someday it will be gone. It matte up true, but it did not feel like all of the truth.Against the vastness of the night, he sees the heavyweight shape of the Crimson King attribute aloft a small boy to use as a burning glass that will ignite the worlds into blast waste. What Parkus said was right he cannot record the giant, but he may find it possible to rescue the boy.The bees said merely Ty Marshall.The bees said Love Henry Leyden.The bees said Love Sophie.That is close enough, right enough, for Jack. To the bees, these were all the same strong belief. He supposes that the bees might well also have said, Do your job, coppiceman, and that sentence was only slightly different. Well, he would do his job, all right. After having been given such a miracle, he could do nothing else.His heart warms as he turns up Henrys drive. What was Henry but another kind of miracle?Tonight, Jack gleefully resolves, he is going to give the amazing Henry Leyden a thrill he will never forget. Tonight, he will tell Henry the whole story, the entire long tale of the journey he took in his twelfth year the Blasted Lands, Rat ional Richard, the Agincourt, and the Talisman. He will not leave out the Oatley Tap and the Sunlight Home, for these travails will get Henry wonderfully worked up. And Wolf Henry is going to be crazy about Wolf Wolf will throb him right down to the soles of his chocolate-brown suede loafers. As Jack speaks, every word he says will be an apology for having been unruffled for so long.And when he has finished telling the whole story, telling it at least as well as he can, the world, this world, will have been transformed, for one person in it besides himself will know everything that happened. Jack can barely imagine what it will feel like to have the dam of his loneliness so obliterated, so destroyed, but the very thought of it floods him with the anticipation of relief.Now, this is strange . . . Henry has not turned on his lights, and his house looks dark and empty. He must have fall asleep.Smiling, Jack turns off the engine and gets out of the pickups cab. take care tells him th at he wont get more than triad paces into the living room before Henry rouses himself and pretends that he has been awake all along. Once, when Jack found him in the dark like this, he said, I was just resting my eyes. So what is it going to be tonight? He was planning his Lester Young?CCharlie Parker birthday tribute, and he found it easier to concentrate this way? He was thinking about frying up some fish, and he wanted to see if food tasted different if you cooked it in the dark? Whatever it is, itll be entertaining. And maybe they will celebrate Henrys new deal with ESPNHenry? Jack raps on the door, then opens it and leans in. Henry, you faker, are you asleep?Henry does not respond, and Jacks question falls into a soundless void. He can see nothing. The room is a two-dimensional pane of blackness. Hey, Henry, Im here. And boy, do I have a story for youto a greater extent dead silence. Huh, Jack says, and steps inside. Immediately, his instincts scream that he should get out, ta ke off, scram. But why should he feel that? This is just Henrys house, thats all he has been inside it hundreds of times before, and he knows Henry has either fallen asleep on his sofa or walked over to Jacks house, which come to think of it is probably exactly what happened. Henry got a marvelous offer from the ESPN representative, and in his excitement for even Henry Leyden can get excited, you just have to look a little closer than you do with most race decided to surprise Jack at his house. When Jack failed to arrive by five or six, he decided to wait for him. And right now, he is probably sound asleep on Jacks sofa, instead of his own.All of this is plausible, but it does not alter the message blasting from Jacks nerve endings. Go countenance You dont want to be hereHe calls Henrys name again, and his response is the silence he expects.The transcendent mood that had carried him down the valley has already disappeared, but he never noted its passing, merely that it is a thi ng of the past. If he were still a homicide detective, this is the moment when he would unholster his weapon. Jack steps gently into the living room. Two strong odors come to him. One is the scent of perfume, and the other . . .He knows what the other one is. Its presence here means that Henry is dead. The part of Jack that is not a cop argues that the smell of blood means no such thing. Henry may have been weakened in a fight, and the Fisherman could have taken him crossways worlds, as he did with Tyler Marshall. Henry may be even up in some pocket of the Territories, salted away to be used as a bargaining chip, or as bait. He and Ty might be side by side, waiting for rescue.Jack knows that none of this is true. Henry is dead, and the Fisherman killed him. It is his job now to find the body. Hes a coppiceman he has to act like one. That the last thing in the world he wants to do is look at Henrys corpse does not change the nature of his task. Sorrow comes in many forms, but the kind of melancholy that has been building within Jack Sawyer feels as if it is made of granite. It slows his step and clenches his jaw. When he moves to his left and reaches for the light switch, this stony trouble directs his hand to the right spot on the wall as surely as if he were Henry.Because he is expression at the wall when the lights go on, only his skirting(prenominal) vision takes in the interior of the room, and the toll does not seem as blanket(a) as he had feared. A lamp has been toppled, a chair knocked over. But when Jack turns his head, two aspects of Henrys living room sear themselves onto his retinas. The first is a red slogan on the cream-colored opposite wall the second, the sheer amount of blood on the floor. The bloodstains are like a map of Henrys progress into and back out of the room. Gouts of blood like those left by a wounded fauna begin at the hallway and trail, accompanied by many loops and spatters, to the back of the Mission sofa, where blood lies pooled. Another large pool covers the hardwood floor beneath the long, low table where Henry sometimes used to park his portable CD player and stack the evenings CDs. From the table, another series of splashes and gouts lead back into the hallway. To Jack, it looks as though Henry must have been very low on blood when he felt practiced enough to crawl out from under the table. If that is the way it went.While Henry lay dead or dying, the Fisherman had taken something made of cloth his shirt? a handkerchief ? and used it like a fat, unwieldy paintbrush. He had dipped it in the blood behind the sofa, raised it dripping to the wall, and daubed a few earn. hence hed ingeminate and repeated the action until he had wiped the last letter of his message onto the wall. howdy Hollywood ejaculate GET MEECK CK CK CKBut the Crimson King had not written the taunt initials, and neither had Charles Burnside. They had been daubed on the wall by the Fishermans master, whose name, in our ears, sounds like Mr. Munshun.Dont worry, Ill come for you soon enough, Jack thinks.At this point, he could not be criticized for walking outside, where the air does not reek of blood and perfume, and using his cell phone to call Sumner Street. Maybe Bobby Dulac is on duty. He might even find Dale still at the station. To fulfill all of his civic obligations, he need speak only eight or cardinal words. After that, he could pocket the cell phone and sit on Henrys front steps until the guardians of law and order come barreling up the long drive. There would be a lot of them, at least four cars, maybe five. Dale would have to call the troopers, and Brown and Black might feel obliged to call the FBI. In about forty-five minutes, Henrys living room would be crowded with men taking measurements, writing in their notebooks, setting down licence tags, and photographing bloodstains. There would be the M.E. and the evidence wagon. And when the first stage of everybodys various jobs came to an end, two men in white jackets would carry a stretcher through the front door and load the stretcher into whatever the hell they were driving.Jack does not consider this option for much longer than a couple of seconds. He wants to see what the Fisherman and Mr. Munshun did to Henry he has to see it, he has no choice. His grim suffer demands it, and if he does not obey his heartbreaks commands, he will never feel quite whole again.His sorrow, which is closed like a steel bound around his love for Henry Leyden, drives him deeper into the room. Jack moves slowly, picking his way forward the way a man crossing a stream moves from rock to rock. He is looking for the bare places where he can set his feet. From across the room, dripping red letters eight inches high mock his progress.HELLO HollywoodIt seems to wink on and off, like a neon sign. HELLO HOLLYWOOD HELLO HOLLYWOOD.CUM GET MEECUM GET MEEHe wants to curse, but the weight of his sorrow will not permit him to utter the words that float into his mind. At the end of the hallway to the studio and the kitchen, Jack steps over a long smear of blood and turns his back on the living room and the distracting flashes of neon. The light penetrates only three or four feet into the hallway. The kitchen is solid, plain darkness. The studio door hangs half open, and reflected light shines softly in its window.Blood lies splosh and smeared everywhere on the floor of the hallway. He can no longer avoid stepping in it but moves down the hallway with his eyes on the gaping studio door. Henry Leyden never left this door yawning into the little corridorhe unploughed it closed. Henry was neat. He had to be if he left the studio door intermission open, he would walk right into it the next time he went to the kitchen. The mess, the disorder left in his wake by Henrys manslayer disturbs Jack more than he wishes to admit, maybe even more than he recognizes. This hatful represents a true violation, and, on his friends beha lf, Jack hugely resents it.He reaches the door, touches it, opens it wider. A arduous stench of perfume and blood hangs in the air. Nearly as dark as the kitchen, the studio offers Jack only the dim shape of the console and the murky rectangles of the speakers strict to the wall. The window into the kitchen hovers like a black sheet, invisible. His hand still on the door, Jack moves nearer and sees, or thinks he sees, the back of a tall chair and a shape stretched over the desk in front of the console. Only then does he hear the whup-whup-whup of tape hitting the end of a reel.Ohmygod, Jack says, all in one word, as if he had all along not been expecting something precisely like what is before him. With a terrible, insistent certainty, the sound of the tape drives home the fact that Henry is dead. Jacks sorrow overrides his chickenhearted desire to go outside and call every cop in the state of Wisconsin by compelling him to botch up for the light switch. He cannot leave he must w itness, as he did with Irma Freneau.His fingers brush against the down-ticked plastic switch and settle on it. Into the back of his throat rises a sour, garish taste. He flicks the switch up, and light floods the studio.Henrys body leans out of the tall leather chair and over the desk, his hands on either side of his prize microphone, his face planate on its left side. He is still wearing his dark glasses, but one of the thin metal bows is bent. At first, everything seems to have been painted red, for the nearly uniform coat of blood covering the desk has been dripping onto Henrys lap and the tops of his thighs for some time, and all the equipment has been sprayed with red. secern of Henrys cheek has been bitten off. He is missing two fingers from his right hand. To Jacks eyes, which have been taking an strain as they register all the dilate of the room, most of Henrys blood loss came from a wound in his back. Blood-soaked clothing conceals the injury, but as much blood lies poo led, dripping, at the back of the chair as covers the desk. or so of the blood on the floor came from the chair. The Fisherman must have sliced an internal organ, or severed an artery.Very little blood, apart from a fine mist over the controls, has hit the tape recorder. Jack can hardly remember how these machines work, but he has seen Henry change reels often enough to have a sense of what to do. He turns the recorder off and threads the end of the tape into the empty reel. Then he turns the machine on and pushes REWIND. The tape glides smoothly over the heads, spooling from one reel to the other.Did you make a tape for me, Henry? Jack asks. I bet you did, but I hope you didnt die telling me what I already know.The tape clicks to a stop. Jack pushes PLAY and holds his breath.In all his bull-necked, red-faced glory, George Rathbun booms from the speakers. Bottom of the ninth, and the home team is headed for the showers, pal. But the game aint OVER till the last BLIND man is DEADJac k sags against the wall.Henry Shake enters the room and tells him to call Maxtons. The Wisconsin Rat sticks his head in and screams about Black House. The Sheik the Shake the Shook and George Rathbun have a short debate, which the Shake wins. It is too much for Jack he cannot stop his tears, and he does not bother to try. He lets them come. Henrys last slaying moves him enormously. It is so bountiful, so pure so purely Henry. Henry Leyden kept himself alive by calling on his spring selves, and they did the job. They were a faithful crew, George and the Shake and the Rat, and they went down with the ship, not that they had much choice. Henry Leyden reappears, and in a voice that grows fainter with each phrase, says that Jack can beat vain and stupid. Henrys dying voice says he had a wonderful life. His voice drops to a whisper and utters three words filled to the brim with satisfy surprise Ah, Lark. Hello. Jack can hear the smile in those words.Weeping, Jack blind staggers out of the studio. He wants to collapse into a chair and cry until he has no more tears, but he cannot fail either himself or Henry so greatly. He moves down the hallway, wipes his eyes, and waits for the stony sorrow to help him deal with his grief. It will help him deal with Black House, too. The sorrow is not to be deterred or deflected it works like steel in his spine.The ghost of Henry Shake whispers Jack, this sorrow is never going to leave you. Are you down with that? Wouldnt have it any other way.Just as long as you know. Wherever you go, whatever you do. Through every door. With every woman. If you have children, with your children. Youll hear it in all the music you listen to, youll see it in every book you read. It will be part of the food you eat. With you forever. In all the worlds. In Black House. I am it, and it is me.George Rathbuns whisper is twice as loud as the Sheik the Shake the Shooks Well, damnit, son, can I hear you say DYAMBA? Dyamba.I reckon now you know why the bees embraced you. Dont you have a telephone call to make?Yes, he does. But he cannot live on to be in this blood-soaked house any longer he needs to be out in the warm spend night. Letting his feet land where they may, Jack walks across the ruined living room and passes through the doorway. His sorrow walks with him, for he is it and it is he. The enormous sky hangs far above him, pierced with stars. knocked out(p) comes the trusty cell phone.And who answers the telephone at the French Landing Police air? Arnold Flashlight Hrabowski, of course, with a new knight and just reinstated as a member of the force. Jacks news puts Flashlight Hrabowski in a state of high agitation. What? Gosh Oh, no. Oh, who woulda believed it? Gee. Yeah, yessir. Ill take care of that right away, you bet.So while the former Mad Hungarian tries to keep both his hands and voice from vibration as he dials the chiefs home number and passes on Jacks two-sided message, Jack himself wanders away from the hou se, away from the drive and his pickup truck, away from anything that reminds him of human beings, and into a meadow filled with high, yellow-green grasses. His sorrow leads him, for his sorrow knows better than he what he needs.Above all, he needs rest. Sleep, if sleep is possible. A soft spot on level ground far from the coming uproar of red lights and sirens and furious, hyperactive policemen. Far from all that desperation. A place where a man can lay his head and get a representative view of the local sphere of influence. half a mile down the fields, Jack comes to such a place between a cornfield and the rocky beginnings of the arboreous hills. His suffer mind tells his sorrowing, exhausted body to lie down and make itself comfortable, and his body obeys. Overhead, the stars seem to vibrate and blur, though of course real stars in the familiar, real heavens do not act that way, so it must be an optical illusion. Jacks body stretches out, and the eke out of grass and topsoil beneath his body seems to adjust itself around him, although this, too, must be an illusion, for everyone knows that in real life, the veridical ground tends to be obdurate, inflexible, and stony. Jack Sawyers sorrowing mind tells his sorrowing ache of a body to fall asleep, and impossible as it may seem, fall asleep it does. inwardly minutes, Jack Sawyers sleeping body undergoes a subtle transformation. Its edges seem to soften, its colors his wheaten hair, his light tan jacket, his soft brown shoes grow paler. An odd translucency, a mistiness or cloudiness, enters the process. It is as if we can peer through the cloudy, indistinct mass of his slow-breathing body to see the soft, crushed blades of grass that form its mattress. The longer we peer, the more clear we can take in the grass beneath him, for his body is getting vaguer and vaguer. At last it is only a shimmer over the grass, and by the time the Jack- determine pad of green has again straightened itself, the body that shaped it is long gone.