Tuesday, April 30, 2019

Framework for proposal Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Framework for proposal - Essay ExampleFor these reasons, my proposal testament complicate both technical and prose formats.2. In section 1, I leave behind organize my ideas into paragraphs written in a logical manner in order to guide and direct the reader. The ideas will be fundamentally to give up background information, identify goals and objectives of the project.3. In section 2 which will be written in prose, I will structure the proposal through the use of heading and subheadings which will be presented in such away that there will be a logical flow of ideas. Examples will be provided to enhance clarity and understanding. Markers may also be used to emphasize ideas, words, and phrases. The idea is to demonstrate why the expansion of the psychological science department is needed.4. The two common formats I will use in the TW sections include the use of concrete, direct, and specific language as well as the use of charts, graphs, tables, and lists in order to get hold of s pecific information. The use of concrete, direct, and specific language is to show preciseness and conciseness in presentation of specific technical information. The use of the charts, graphs, tables, and lists is important to show visual presentation of specific information.5. In section 2 of the proposal, it will be important to use present information about the limited capacity of the psychology department. Data that might be presented include the limited number of available facilities, instructors, administrators, and students. After presenting these data, I will show why the department needs to be expanded. In section 4, I might provide data about how expansion of the psychology department in other universities has benefited these universities. I might level(p) out present opinions from students, administrators, and instructors supporting the expansion.7. In the prose parts of the proposal, I will use standard English, figurative language, and even slang while in

Monday, April 29, 2019

Evidence Based Paper (Asthma) Research Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Evidence Based (Asthma) - Research Paper Examplemethodologically sound and clinically relevant research. Evidence-based practice has been defined as the conscientious, explicit and judicious use of current top hat demo in making decisions about the care of individual patients. (Sackett, Richardson, Rosenberg, & Hayes, 1997, p. 5). Most notably, essay-based practice stresses the use of research and manifest to guide clinical decision making and it is empty of intuitions and unsystematic observations. In other words, evidence-based practice in nursing requires clinicians to acquire the skill of applying the research evidence in clinical practice. In nursing, evidence-based practice emphasizes best research evidence relating to the effectiveness and safety of nursing interventions, the accuracy of nursing assessment measures, and the meaning of disorder and patient experiences. It is important to recognize that evidence-based practice hypothesizes a hierarchy of evidence to guide c linical decisions, and personalizing the evidence to blend in a specific patients circumstances is central to evidence-based clinical decision. (DiCenso, Guyatt, and Ciliska, 2005, p. 4).

Sunday, April 28, 2019

Presidency Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Presidency - hear ExampleHe has the supreme power of veto, even though the Congress can override it. A man endowed with such important powers needs to be a balanced individual, capable of fetching on the spot, quick and appropriate decisions. But his actions need to stand the test of close scrutiny by the Supreme Court and he has to take enough care that he does not violate the sustenance of the US Constitution. Though he has an array of legal advisers, the chairwoman must possess that sixth genius to take right decisions at the right time. The real test with a President is in dealings with the foreign countries. No doubt, he is working under a system of delegated powers but President is the psyche Diplomat, and he has to take important and big decisions that have far reaching political significance and publication on the American economy. State of war and depression in the economy are the worst social function that can happen to a country. President Franklin D. Roosevelt (19 33-1945) faced such a challenging situation. He negotiated both the crises successfully by keeping a close rapport with the batch and about 80% of the people listened to his speeches. As such communicating effectively with the people is a quality that will make the President great. Another important issue for the President is to deal with his advisors. He has the power of appointment, and some of those who disagree with his viewpoints later, may be his appointees. A good President needs to create such a congenial atmospheric state that those who disagree with him should feel free to air their opinions. What is important is expression of independent opinions irrespective of the consequences. They are helping the President, ipso facto, the population, even when they disagree with his estimate of a particular issue. The President has great projects to implement as per his pick promises, and he needs great and fearless individuals to implement them. They may not agree with the Pre sident eternally The President may not agree with their viewpoints sometimes. But the ship of national and international politics commandeered by the President has to sail through the turbulent waters. When you get ready to vote for a Presidential campaigner, what is approximately important? I would go by the merit of the Presidential candidate, though I have affiliations with a particular party that I would not like to disclose. To me the President is a supreme personality and interests of the Nation are much important than party interests. Moreover, I am not voting for a candidate in the local body elections. I will cut through the party-liners, if necessary and vote for the beaver candidate, without fear or favor. Now, the question is how to select who is the best? Here I make use of the friendship that I possess on the subject of leadership qualities. First and foremost is the character of the individual as character traits have an overriding influence on other qualities. G rit and determination follow. Often, peace-time problems are more important than the problems of the Nation at war. Political opponents turn vociferous during peace-time and the expectations of the people also are more. The scotch issues like crime, drugs, healthcare, education and immigration take the front seat to challenge the President. As such I will vote for the President

Saturday, April 27, 2019

The media are a very powerful source of socialization today Essay

The media are a very right on source of socialization today - Essay ExampleWhile mountain may have initially been livid with the way the case was handled, and the severity of the decline on human and plant health, the way that the publisher presents the news about the settlement may change the discernment and actions of people towards BP. The newspaper presents information on the number of claimants who deserve compensation, a factor that BP had not integrated into its compensation plans.Through the major forms of media, television, and newspapers, people are able to get information on recent events such as the BP oil spill and socialize. Without such information, it may be indeed hard for people to fulfil socialization because of insufficient or impassable information. Through the socialization aspect, it is possible to provide an opinionated thought on an event. However, religious and educational institutions remain to be the main source of long-lived socialization aspects, unl ike the media that may present unpredictable and short-lived presentations that may fluctuate in the future or be prejudiced by outdoor(a) powers guided by egocentric

Friday, April 26, 2019

Sikh Gurus, Sacred Scripture, Sacred Institutions Research Paper

Sikh Gurus, sublime Scripture, Sacred Institutions - Research Paper ExampleAll Sikhs ar deeply connected to the Guru Granth, and it is considered to be the Guru, and thus to be the immediate revelation and manifestation of theology (Mann 41). How scripture became the Guru and how each Guru interpretericipated in scripture, and the institutions that resulted from this process, is a very provoke story. The way God spoke to the Sikhs was through their Gurus. The Gurus wrote songs and recitations of devotion and supplication, in poetic form, and these were passed on to subsequent Gurus of the lineage. The Guru Granth is comprised of the collection of poetry and songs, dating all the way back to the respected Guru Nanak, the first Guru of the Sikhs (Mann). The scripture is an active part of daily living, for the Sikhs, and is the center for rites of passage in Sikh family celebrations (Mann 42) Guru Nanak taught an emancipator path of liberation from the cycle of rebirth, base upon the humble and joyous adoration of God. God was macrocosm and microcosm, and could not be fully known nor manipulated, but might freely bestow his grace. Guru Nanak, glimpsing the transcendent, sang poetry to God I would still not be able to measure your greatness, nor signify the glory of your name. An separate example is To you belong my breath, to you my flesh. You the True One are my Beloved (Singh 34). Guru Nanaks 500 devotional songs (Mann 44) address the problem of Indian societys brokenness and atomization into the many pieces of caste, class, religion, language, social structure and cultural paradigms (Muthumohan 8). In the 1500s, the Punjab was ruled by Muslims, using the Quran, and society similarly under the influence of Brahman priests who excluded women and all lower castes from much of the religious worship experience, and who kept an verbal tradition of scripture, so that accessibility was controlled (Mann 43). The Jains responded to Indias fragmentation by honor ing multiplicity. Vedanta reduced everything into OM, outside of which everything else is illusion. Buddhism constructed relationality. Sikh musical devotion mediates between the dilemma of one and many through musical cementing and construction of approve (Muthumohan 8). Music is a fluid signifier, to Guru Nanaks way of thinking, and very unlike the rigid deity signifiers of other religious approaches, which created division, not unity (Muthumohan 8). Guru Nanaks God is nameless, formless and eternal, cannot be precisely known, so this God does not divide into inflexible social and philosophical segments, but unites what is broken. The universality of God was reflected in the teachings and invest of caste and gender equality (Grewel 15). This view of equality is reflected now in the way every Sikh, no matter of caste, class, gender, age, or status is equally welcome to handle the Guru Granth, to read it and listen to it and sing it and respond to it (Mann 44). there is no pries t in charge but each person can access the scripture, and so God, directly. This view of equality is reflected in Guru Nanaks institution of congregational worship. He sat with his followers, who were not elevated from each other in practice, and sang praises to God together, at the aforementioned(prenominal) time, in the same place, with the same status, all having in common their loyalty to the Guru. This became known as

Thursday, April 25, 2019

Human Resource Management Training Proposal Research Paper

mankind Resource Management Training end - Research Paper ExampleIt can enable to address the employees requirements in keeping with the organizational goals and objectives. The proposed pedagogy program can facilitate to enhance the level of motivation of employees as well owing to the position that they can better equip themselves to the expected level of performance from them after the execution of the training program. Overview of the Human Resource Management Process and Steps Involved Human Resource Management (HRM) is gaining its importance in the healthcare sector. Proper human resource management is a critical aspect which helps in providing elevated quality healthcare. Human resource planning is key for determining the staff support required by the healthcare to meet the service seekers need. Human resource planning is the process of identifying current and future needs of human beings in an organization. The measures involved in the planning of human resource invol ve brush up of the business goals which deals with understanding the needs and the future objective of the business. The second ill-use is the scanning of both the inner(a) and external environment to determine the trend of the employees, policies implemented along with evaluating the culture and activities within the healthcare company. The thirdly whole yard is gap analysis which facilitates to determine the future needs and explores the possible shortfalls. Subsequently, development of the plans considering the budgets and priorities based on need of the healthcare company would be executed. The last step is to evaluate the performance by measuring the achievement of the goals, evaluating the progress of the strategies implemented along with the reports. The steps of the proposed human resource planning are visualised through the diagram below Source (New Foundland Labrador, n.d.) The planning process will be effective when the enlisting process is smooth and effective. To make the process of hiring, retention well-organized and to ensure consistency in the process of recruitment along with selection various steps are to be followed to make the progression efficient. The first step is to identify the vacancy and to evaluate the need. The human resource management training need to ensure that at that place is a proper alignment of the skills of the new employees with the organizational requirements. The second step is contrast description which is important for the successful recruitment process. The job description helps in forming the questions for the interview along with the relevant checks which are to be developed. The information about the work, the purpose and the responsibility will be discussed to recruit the right person. The third step is to develop the recruitment plan which deals with the posting period, goals of the placement, along with placing advertisement through print and social media. The recruitment plan is basically done to attract good qualified candidates for the job purpose in the healthcare company. The fourth step involves selection of the search committee who will be responsible for the recruitment. The committee includes the hiring manager, job specialist and other members. The fifth step is to implement the recruitment plan and then sixth step is to review the applicants and shortlist the candidates according to the health care companys available vacancy. The next step is the important part which is the interviewing process for the selection purpose. Before the interview is to

Wednesday, April 24, 2019

Monopolies - Gas and Electric Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Monopolies - Gas and Electric - Essay ExampleGovernments intervention top outing to monopolization of the waste and electric sectors of the given country will have convinced(p) and negative implication to the general economy. Governments intervention in such businesses will curb that consumers receive better services from the traders of the finical product (Tucker, 2011). Government will also help consumers work on maximum sovereignty without any form of manipulation by the individual traders. In addition, governing bodys intervention in monopoly of gas and electricity will help in ensuring that consumers get quality products and that traders trace with the safety standards.According to Rittenberg, et al (2008), the negative experience that will occur when government intervenes, forming monopolies in gas and electricity sectors will include high cost of production as the producer will be unable to pass the costs to consumers. When costs of production rises, producers will str ive to limit the use of naked as a jaybird materials and this may compromise innovation. Furthermore, governments intervention in monopoly of gas and electricity may lead to skyrocketing of prices of the products due to the raised standards of services, which will have adverse effects to the lower economic class (Rittenberg, 2008). Moreover, governments intervention in monopoly trade of gas and electricity will also derail look into process and spirit that a company may have to develop other ways of producing the particular

Tuesday, April 23, 2019

Issues Related to Social Security Fund Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Issues Related to sociable Security broth - rise ExampleIn 2012 balance of payment in the blood line was 57.3 meg dollars on the plus fount after paying complete liabilities which shows good situation of the ancestry. However 2012 Trustees Report has projected calculations according to which the fund will collapse by year 2033 due to downward trend in wages and luxuriant borrowing by Treasury. There get h hoary of been speculations by financial experts according to which the fund lacks strength to take hold itself over coming decades despite current value of $ 2.7 Trillion quoted by National Committee to guard tender Security and Medicare ( 2012 ) . According to There is one opinion that it is unfair to charge the same tot up from a billionaire and the one earning $110,000 per annum . The fixation of earning limit is known as Payroll Cap, which is required to be deepen to $ 250,000 to keep it progressive for the next 75 years, according to few analysts. According to sena tor Bernie Sanders quoted by Common Dreams Website (2012) Social Security Fund faces no risk. Currently 55 Million Ameri trick benefit from the fund. Although the income may be as low as $ 23000 for a couple, in many cases this is the nevertheless source of income they have in the old age. In this back drop the fund is saving millions from poverty in old age and remains one of the best social programs in American history. The significance of program can be judged from the fact that before it half of senior citizens lived under poverty whereas after its launch only 10 % live under that line. The current discussion about the program is related to budget deficit in USA. Few financial experts have proposed that in order to balance the budget a hack on should be introduced on social security fund and other programs like Medicare and Medicaid etc. President scouring introduced tax cuts for two years in 2010 which will expire in the end 2012. There is a debate that these tax cuts be m ade permanent despite the fact that over next 75 years loss in revenue due to taxation would be twice as gravid as shortfall in social security fund. For long-term solvency in Social Security Fund an early decision by lawmakers is necessary to spread cost over decades and give savings assertion to people retiring over the years. The budgetary cuts imposed now will have economic wedge on American Nation in the decades to come therefore extreme caution is required plot making changes in legislation. People who were born in baby boomer era would be entranceway retirement bracket in current decade therefore there would be a large pressure on Social security Fund. However it is upto the policy makers to guide the Nation in the flush direction. Why was the article scripted about the topic at the current time? The article has been written at the current time due to following reasons. First of all Bush Administration enacted the tax laws in end 2010 for two years, the limit of this l aw would have terminated by end of 2012 moreover it has been extended by President Obama according to Jennifer (2012) . This means payment of more taxes in the name of Social Security and other related programs. Since Social Security Fund is already surplus to the tone of $ 57.3 Billion after paying liabilities, there has been a demand to slash down the fund. Historically it is common for this fund to exceed liabilities therefore reduction in this fund to balance the budget (due to recession) is being demanded which is not crystal clear in the long term effects on dependents of fund. How

English-Rule Only Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

position-Rule plainly - Research Paper ExampleAdvantages of the RuleThe subject that only English should be used at work places creates very strong feelings. Some individuals may believe that it is wrong to speak in a language that others do not understand. In the same way, speakers of languages other than English may believe that complaints against the enjoyment of another language stem from racism or unnecessary suspicion of what is being spoken.But the U.S. cost Employment Opportunity Commission regulations call down that a restriction to speaking English at alone times is disadvantageous to an individuals employment opportunity on the basis of national origin. The way believes that English-only rules create an atmosphere of inferiority, isolation and intimidation which is based on national origin that could result in discriminatory working environment (Bothwell-Marketing-Inc, 2011). EEOC regulation clearly states that the rule English-only rule is permissible only where th e employer shadow show that the rule is justified by the necessity of the business. Spun Steak offered a justification that the non-Spanish speaking employees felt no-account because they were being insulted in Spanish. The company also noted there were some safety benefits to using a language common to most employees. Employers in areas where the rule applied pointed to safety issues, customer service, and business link up justifications which are related to their businesses. But opponents say that the U.S has been a country of immigrants coming from various cultures speaking divergent languages. In the past the new migrants wanted to quickly assimilate into the topical anesthetic culture and adopt the local language. This helped them in their integration with the local society. However currently, many new migrants foster separate almost ghetto-like communities which move on a limited basis with the outside. As many of them fail to learn English they do not gain the ability t o interact outside their own community and thus cannot easily ruffle in the society. This inability to communicate is the basis of mistrust, fear and war among the different cultures (ask-Vile, 2006). Statistics show that about 215 meg Americans speak English while only 2 million people speak Spanish (Juggle, 2011). on that point are already 26 states where English is the only official language Most of the migrants also state that they think everyone should learn English if they are to live in the United States. English is spoken in Congress, courthouses, national parks, and Presidential speeches. It is also spoken in almost every business corner. Every where the English language is spoken (Juggle, 2011). But accounting office report that was released shows that 99.94 percent of all federal brass documents are produced in English. The English proponents argue that more than 300 languages are

Monday, April 22, 2019

Preserving illinois wetlands Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Preserving illinois wet vote downs - Essay ExampleThe achievement of the measures will be put in to psychoanalysis together with how the goals and objectives of wetlands preservation in Illinois have been effective.Wetlands conservation is of international concern because they are transitional region between the open water and the dry land. They serve many function such recharging the ground and sea water, providing habitats to fish and other aquatic organisms, they also protect floods damage and improves water quality by better to reduce on chemicals and other harmful bodies. These benefits increase the need to preserve the wetlands. There has been establishment of Illinois Wetlands saving Strategy (IWCS) which is a comprehensive plan to guide the machineation and development the wetlands protection initiatives. The goal of the IWCS is to realise there are no losses of wetlands or the functional value of wetlands is lost. Their objective is to develop and implement an ecosyst em strategy that is directed towards protection, restoration and conservation of wetlands (Dunne & Knapp, 11-26). Agencies such Ducks unlimited introduced a method where it would purchase land from original owners to safe it from destruction. The government funds those agencies that study towards conservation of the wetlands which acts as a motivator to agencies to work towards such a course (Mitsch & Gosselink, 24-36).The measures have been effective in conservation of the wetlands. Ducks unlimited have registered succeeder where it have bought the encroached land from their original owners and uses them as homes for ducks and other birds. IWSC have registered success in its implementation of the diverse policies which it has formulated to protect and conserve wetlands. The agencies have registered success in restoration of the wetlands where they have been able to bribe land and plants trees and other plantations which will act as habitat for animals and birds. The government policy to fund agencies has

Sunday, April 21, 2019

Toyota hybrid cars Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words

Toyota hybrid cars - Assignment ExampleVarious advanced technologies that ar utilized by hybrids include regenerative braking which is characterised by the electric motor applying resistance to the drivetrain consequently forcing the wheels to slow down (Fuhs, 2009, p. 73). In response, the nix form the wheels will turn the motor that acts as a generator which converts energy that usually goes to bodge during braking into electricity and battery is used for storing the electricity until when it will be required by the motor (Lagun slay, 2008, p. 156). other technology that is used by the hybrid vehicles is the electric motor assist where the electric motor avails more than power to help the engine during acceleration, overtaking or going up a hill. Therefore, a little and more efficient engine can be used while in some of the cars, altogether the motor avails power needed for driving in low speed conditions where internal combustion engines are not very effective. They also emp loy automatic start and shut off that shuts of the engine ad libitum when the car pulls to a halt and starts it again it when the motorist presses on the accelerator. The automatic start and shut off is important in preventing wastage of energy from idling.Toyota is a leading corporation in manufacturing, assembling as nearly as supply of cars all over the globe. One of the key reasons for the bon tons good doing is the efficient management system that it employs (Czinkota and Ronkainen, 2013, p. 535). There are several other striking attributes that have enabled the company to achieve its place as a market leader. The type of market structure that the company functions in cannot be defined clearly and in some cases, it is considered to be a monopoly. The dominance of the company in the market is what makes the company to be seen as operating a monopoly. The companys differentiation overture has enabled it to have a monopolistic existence particularly in the emerging nations. Co nversely, the

Saturday, April 20, 2019

Not Real Apology Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Not Real Apology - Essay ExampleAlthough two Lewinsky and Clinton initially both refuted the affair before a grand dialog box. They eventually admitted to the affair on subject field television. Clinton later on apologized to his family, the American people and to God for the affair. By conducting a rhetorical analysis of the legal transfer that was given by professorship Clinton as he apologized, this paper will seek to argue that President Clinton did not indispensableness to make an defense to his family and country.An analysis of President Clintons speech in his apology reveals some elements that hint at the probability that President Clinton did not really want to apologize to his family and America. These elements intromitIn his speech, President Clinton alludes to the fact that he had just finished testifying before both the grand jury and the Office of Independent Counsel (OIC). He mentioned that although he had answered the questions in a truthful manner, he had answ ered a spell of questions pertaining to his own private life questions which he points out no American citizen would ever want to answer. This statement hints at the fact that President Clinton might have been forced to answer a number of questions which he was not quite comfortable with answering. The opening statement also suggests that it is quite possible that Clinton was utilize the speech not as an apology, but as a means to denounce the OIC and the Grand instrument panel for the fact that he had been forced to answer a number of private questions pertaining to himself.This position is further beef up by the fact that in his next paragraph, Clinton does not apologize but instead argues that during a deposition that had been conducted in January, although he had not volunteered any information, his answers during the deposition had been legally accurate. Clinton does not apologize for his relationship with expend Lewinsky but instead terms it as having been wrong. Immedia tely after terming the relationship as a personalized

Friday, April 19, 2019

Biological Molecules Lab Report Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Biological Molecules - Lab Report ExampleBecause the usable groups exhibit characteristic chemic chemical reactions that involve color trans figure of speechs, they can be used as the basis of some(prenominal) qualitative and numerical assessments.Mash a sample of the imitation crab sum in some water with the homogenizer. come to some of the liquid and place it in a clean test tube or another(prenominal) suitable glass container. To another such container add the equal amount of plain water. Test both solutions with diabetic glucose tests strips. Add Benedicts solution to both containers and heat using water bath. Observe color change identifying presence (or absence) of glucose in solution. A positive result with the water extract indicates that the imitation crab meat contains additional glucose and should be avoided by Granny.1. Samples should be heated in Benedicts test to increase the rate of the reaction between the sugar and Benedicts reagent. Without heating the react ion may proceed only very slowly, which may wiz to a false result.2. The copper ions in the copper sulfate of Benedicts reagent bond non-covalently or coordinate to the aldehyde functional group of glucose and similar sugars. This facilitates an oxidation of the organic molecule to the carboxylic acid, and is accompanied by the formation of nuclear copper by reduction of the copper ions. The presence of copper atoms in the solution is responsible for the spy color changes. Similarly, the copper ions in Biurets solution coordinate to an amide linkage of protein to form a large building tortuous ion that is highly colored. The IKI reagent in the starch test can be thought of as a complex of potassium ions and iodide ions that have captured molecules of iodine (I2). The multiple -OH groups presence on the starch molecules bond non-covalently to the iodine molecules to form a very dark colored complex.3. If KOH or NaOH were omitted from the Benedicts test, no result could be expected . The hydroxide ion must be present

Thursday, April 18, 2019

Short Religion Films Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

short circuit Religion Films - Essay ExampleThe solution to the Jews major worry of exile is storytelling and the law. For instance, the Jews have the creed and urge for Remember, which is the law. In addition, the Jews have the Torah, which refers to the first five books of the Old Testament and the entire Hebrew prophetical books, which acts as the law. Therefore, some of the aspects of Judaism include following the law, storytelling that implies to follow the commandments (Stephen, 2011).Christians believe that, the only way to separate ourselves from the blemish of sin is done salvation. Stephen Prothero, believes that the only way to find this salvation is by our sins being taken away, through Jesus when he comes to the world in form of a human being lives a stainless live, and dies on the cross consequently taking our sins into his body, person and soul. For instance, the Catholics say you need to be a unassailable a person, have faith and trust in Jesus for you to go to heaven. Although the Protestants oppose the being a good person, they both, however, believe that having faith in Jesus can take you to heaven (Stephen, 2011).The major problem to Buddhism is suffering thus they believe they can live in the world without suffering if they understand why they suffer, and the origin of suffering so that they can reverse it, which is called nirvana (blowing out suffering). For instance, Buddhism says that you can have theology without having a divinity because they believe that having a god will make them no better, less in pain or sorrowful. Some of the aspects of Buddhism are that, Buddhists do not care about a god they meditate, they believe suffering has an origin and can be reversed, hence leading them to nirvana (Stephen, 2011).The solution to the telephone exchange problem of Confucianisms lack of care, social order and the belief that society is falling is apart, is ritual, etiquette, virtual ethical motive and being kind to one another. For instance, there is

Wednesday, April 17, 2019

The Greatest Prime Minister in Canadian History for Promoting Ethnic Essay

The Greatest Prime Minister in Canadian History for Promoting Ethnic Diversity and Communities was Pierre Elliott Trudeau - Essay ExampleDeclarations and policies which were centered on creating a diverse community were then made under his jurisdiction (Wood, Gilbert, 2005). The continuous agenda of Trudeau and the way in which he promoted multiculturalism is one which continues to be used today with initiatives through the policies and political actions which were first implemented by Trudeau.The concept of multiculturalism was pushed by Trudeau because of the changing climate and environment in Canada and the world. Trudeau came into power after World state of war II and through various world revolutions ground on cultural diversity and ethnic equality. Canada was to a fault experiencing a large amount of immigrant pressures from other regions, specifically which began as an offset from World War II. The neighborly pressures of this time were based on the desire to offer minorit ies the same potential as others in caller while integrating opportunity. Trudeau followed these social pressures and stigmas with his own vision of creating an ethnically diverse set of communities through policies and procedures anticipate in society (Driedger, 2001).When Trudeau came into power in 1968, his main agenda was to promote the concept of ethnic diversity. From the seventeenth century, Canada had a large influx of immigration that came into the country. Before this time, there were in any case diversity promotions in terms of both Aboriginal land and those who had found the contemporary nation of Canada. As this grew and continued to divide, ethnic communities began to be more visible within the Canadian territories, specifically because of physical and racial differences. The largest influx came during the World Wars, based on those from Europe that began to migrate to America from the war. Asian communities also began to establish during this time. As the racial d ifferences were noted, it was also expected that a

Tuesday, April 16, 2019

Feminist Philosophy Essay Example for Free

Feminist Philosophy EssayMary Wollstonecraft was no doubt a great womens rightist and deserved to be called grandm opposite of the feminist thought. Her early experiences of an unsuccessful family life as well as the preponderant notion of the philosophers at that time about wowork force shaped her views to become real feminist grand mother. Wollstonecrafts feminist ideas affected the offset tremble of womens lib through her arguments against the prevailing views on women most notably that of Rousseaus which categorized women as subservient to men. Rousseau held that womens education should be designed entirely to make them pleasing to men.Rousseau reflected to please, to be useful to us, to make us love and measure them, to educate us when young and take cargon of us when grown up, to advise, to console us, to render our lives weak and agreeablethese are duties of women at all times(Feminist Philosophy). Against this view, Wollstonecraft work hard to emphasize that the role of women in the society were not simply an ornaments and playthings of men as they are also capable of attaining masculine virtues of sapience and rationality if society would allow those value to be cultivated (p.475-476).Wollstonecraft pointed out that the prevailing views on women had disobedient implications not only on women but on society as well as they will only breed bitterness, jealousy, and folly. She affected the first wave of feminist by encouraging them to restore women to their confused dignity by encouraging better ideas of woman hood (p. 476). How did Simone de Beauvoirs writing shape the second wave?The second wave of feminism was a resurgence of early feminism as a result of various works of feminists during the 1940s such as her works. De Beauvoir writings shaped the second wave of feminism by shedding light about what is a woman in the concept of being other, and how men views women during this period. In her writings de Beauvoir shed loving understandi ng on womanhood. She pointed out that the fundamental social pith of woman is Other.She explained, No group ever sets itself up as the One without at once position up the Other over against itself (p. 479). The thought that de Beauvoir was pointing out was that men do not view women as human being like them but as Others who are to be treated as quaint that do not deserve equal treatment. The implication of mens treatment of women as Others check to de Beauvoir was that because women are others, they do not need to be given equal weight to their preferences simply because they are others (p. 480).Debeauvoirs writings shaped the second wave of feminism through her unique way of providing social understanding about how women were regarded by men during this period. How did the events of the first and second wave affect each other? Apparently, the event of the first and the second wave of feminism affect each other in a way that they connect the second wave to the first. The second wave feminist was inspired by the events during the first wave to tag along their path of pushing for the recognition of womens rights.Apparently, the events of the first wave feminist shaped the understanding of the second wave feminism about womens rights, against the existing social and philosophical views on women. Thus, the events of the first wave serves as mirror for the second wave, and as inspiration for them to continue womens struggle for the restoration of their lost dignity as women equal with men in many aspect, oddly on human rights. Reference More-Bruder Philosophy The Power of Ideas (2008) Feminist Philosophy The McGraw-Hill Companies

Theodore and Wilson Essay Example for Free

Theodore and Wilson EssayWhen we are writing around progressivism, there were three forward-looking presidents that were in the White House from 1901 1921. That was Theodore Roosevelt, William Howard Taft and Woodrow Wilson. Between these three of our president to abridgeher, it is said that they were very different however, they did spend a penny one thing in common reform policy and regulations in the Statesn Society.This here is about the election of 1912 when the current President Taft who was at the date said that he was not interested in a second term at heart. Theodore Roosevelt who endorsed Taft after he stepped down in 1907 became very lovesick with his actions at the White House, so decided that he would run against him however he was not endorsed as a republican runner.He decided and determined he would begin his own party The squealer Moose Party. Roosevelt ran on, standing on his past record and his new deal. The cardinal front-runners were Wilson and Roose velt however in crop this just split the republican votes and Wilson was the elected one.Theodore Roosevelt was a war hero, known for his action flashn during the Spanish-American Wars and leadership the charge with assembly of the Calvary Unit The Rough Riders He was likewise known for being a very out spoken courageous man. . Theodore Roosevelt experience extended as a rising York urban center Police Commissioner, Lieutenant Cornel and Governor.His picture in speaking softly and carrying a big stick. another(prenominal) interesting fact was that Theodore Roosevelt did not traditionally join the Army prior to the war he was the retainer Secretary of the Navy. He was commissioned as Lieutenant Colonial at the line of the idea that the coupled States going to fight a war against Spain in Cuba.Theodore Roosevelt was not at first elected to be President United States however, he was elected as the Vise President. He was the succors of McKinley who was shot in Buffalo, New Yor k on September 06, 1901 and died September 14 1901, this is when the VicePresident Theodore Roosevelt became the President of the United States. This here was the beginning our new president vowed to change and lead the country in a direction that he believes was right. mend in office He demanded a Square Deal, He melodic theme that industries should be adjust for the interests of the American people by regulating, fixing up what he believed were problems. Such as control of corporations, consumer protection, and conservation. His public square deal vision was that every American gets a fair chance, at the time many companies were pickings advantage of the people of the United States and renderd unfair working conditions.Therefore, came the term The big stick in which he was known for threatening to use against companies. He busted 40 other companies up using this method. His vision was for the government to take control by regulating. He did this by implementing Trusts regulati on, Meat Inspection spell, Pure food and Drug Act, Roosevelt Corollary construction of the Panama Canal. His new campaign was about the New Nationalism.His beliefs were that a president should take any actions for the common good of the people of the United States. This country belongs to the people who inhabit it. Its resources, its business, its institutions and its laws should be utilized, maintain or altered in whatever manner will best promote the general interest. (American Experience. 1912) His belief in the preservation of conservation the protecting wilderness to create millions of Ackers protected by the government, this help create the National Parks such as Yosemite Pak, Yellowstone and the Grand Canyon. Another belief was that we should have a the right way military and build the largest Navy in the world and believed that everyone in the world should be aware.Woodrow Wilson was always in the political arena as he studied government at Princeton University Major in American Politics and also received a PhD in History and Political Science from Johns Hopkins University. Woodrow Wilson was nominated as President of Princeton University, and then was elected Governor of New Jersey, which lead him to be President of the United States. (Bowles, 2011) piece in office Woodrow Wilson took some of Roosevelts ideas such as saying all trust were hopeless trust, he was very aggressive on eliminating all. He disliked big business he thought that all monopolies and trust should be broken up because they were hurting the smaller business and the people of America by doing so he said that he was offering the citizens a New Freedom, by screen background up all new Acts.He set up the Federal Trade Commission Act to regulate business to stop unfair practices. This was where people could bring complaints about trusts to the government and have a hearings on unfair practices. Clayton Antitrust Act banned business that limited free enterprise It was strategic be cause it eliminated price discrimination, made illegal the acquiring of stock in competing companies to control markets, and restricted mergers of large companies. (Bowles, 2011) epoch he was successful with the passage of the Underwood-Simmons Tariff, which lowered tariffs from 26 to 24 percent. (Bowles, 2011) During the Wilson presidential term, we had the first graduation of income tax also Women came to vote during his time in the presidencySome of Wilsons beliefs were that by studying public administration governmental efficiency could be increased in our country. He believed that a more moderate and had win the national election on the slogan He kept us out of war this was his battle cry during his second term. This was something that he believed that we as a country did not have to fight any wars. In order to get things accomplished. It was as he thought that we did to need to fight wars in order to get our ways, to keep America out of the war in Europe.He also did not th ink that we requisite a large military, which in turn was shown differently when we entered WWI. At last a vision has been vouchsafed us of our life as a whole. We see the bad with the good, the debased and decadent with the sound and vital. With this vision we coming new affairs. Our duty is to cleanse, to reconsider, to restore, to correct the evil without impairing the good, to purify and humanize every process of our common life. (American Experience. 1913)Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson These two president were thedefinition of the progressivism they had remarkable ideas and careers. As progressive presidents, they produced quite a few notable achievements. They unneurotic set the stage and the direction that our country as a whole was steered in during both their time in office and regulations emplaced into motion that have helped phase our country today. They were both political architects who did much to shape the landscape of 20th century and especially the office of the U.S. presidency. (Bowles, 2011) They left behind legacies that made it tough for the near Presidents that followed them into the White House.ReferencesAmerican Experience. (1912). Progressive Party Platform. Retrieved from http//www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/primary-resources/tr-progressive/American Experience. (1910). The New Nationalism. Retrieved from http//www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/primary-resources/tr-nationalism/American Experience. (1913). Woodrow Wilsons First Inaugural Address. Retrieved from http//www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/primary-resources/tr-woodrow/

Monday, April 15, 2019

Bellinger and Transsexuals Essay Example for Free

Bellinger and Transsexuals EssayAs we said earlier, there will be no practical(prenominal) difference for the registrator whether Mrs. Bellinger would have been through surgical treatment at the moment of sexual union or not. In the same manner, she will look equally distaff to people on the street before and aft(prenominal) operation. The problem lays in her self-importance perception. Acute desire to get rid of the abhorrant organs which (desire) borders with risc of self-mutilation or suicide was invoked by Harry Benjamine as reasons for surgical treatment of a patient. Benjamine patient thus requires check taxonomical niche and might also require medical and in extremal shells surgical treatment which , thus, looks equal to emergency surgical measures applicable to unstable patient. Surgical vocabulary has penetrated the terrain once inhabited by insane terminology. Treatment of such hard typefaces involving peripheral drive towards conjugation with other sex by ar senal of intense psychoterapy was rendered futile and changed for more radical, surgical and hormonal technologies.Although, it is inside approach of psychoterapy that demand of sex change, which was critical in disclosure of syndrome itself, was recognized to cover over another form of subjectivity that be fundamentally destabilizing. It follows that emergency approach within which syndrome of expressed sexuality dysphoria taken at its extremity is only capable of rectification through surgical treatment intended at partial or full remotion of secondary sexual attri preciselyes posseses not its past persuasiveness.Rather, its thesis well-nigh demand for sex change which serves as signifier of the syndrome invites critics on the ground of its Although, Benjaminian patient as a product of doctors and patients dialectical development of sleaze for a subjectivity which constantly is under threat of destruction is very appealing to the equity. The law whitethorn find its subject in the Benjamine patient. Thus created taxonomical niche entail various wake little situations. Earlier, we considered the possibility of Mrs.Bellingers actual union (in terms of kindly recognition of their civil union) in case if she would not undergo sex re-assignment procedure and concluded that marriage will be not less socially valid under that conditions. What if in her place was another person who only occasionally chase after dress and does not wish to play that social role of woman forever? It is very affirmable that she would pass the social test and misled the public with its look but the degree to which she really needs that social and legal recognition is, presumably, incommensurable to that of Mrs.Bellinger. In this case, the fact that person has underg one and only(a) surgical procedure may tell her commitment to the conclusion of ultimate unification with opposite gender (along the lines of Benjamine patient approach) as well as underscore the intricasy of h er psychosomatic neurosis ( psychopathology approach). In any case, surgical treatment dialigns the group of Marginal cross-dressers from other, Nuclear ones .And similary to medicine which aids that marginal patients by delivering them from their detestable organs , law is called to accelerate their come on socialization into society by resolving the internal pressure they feel as regards inability to lawfully participate in civil unions. That law is called upon to faciliate in internal self development and self sagacity is no new it has incorporated norms securing the make up of disabled and retarded which contribute to their self esteem and facilitate their internal development or prevents them from the threat of destruction of personality.But is not it that law pre-maturely intervene into the relations which are to be at first clearified and agreed upon by the medical specialists and only then passed into the sight of law? Whether it us true or not that if there are consti tutely two groups each of which has its exposition on what marginal transvestism is and how it should be treated then law is bound to side with one of those schools since no mutual agreement was developed?Benjamine patient is very appealing taxonomical course which flat and logically connect Marginal transvestism (springing from expressedly antipathic reaction to individual original sex) and gender re-assignment treatment (which is deemed to be the only plausible resolution to thus posed problem). But in the eyes of law transvestite which undergone sex re-assignment posseses no single distinct advantage as compared to that (transvestite) which did not been through that treatment.It is gender identity element of individual that matters when considering the issue of legislative changes to Matrimonial Causes Act. In this respect, gender re-assignment procedure is not a conclusive step which defines those who are eligible for the right to marriage it is only one of those steps which are say by human identity and, through getting further visual and material semblance, incrementally lead to unification with desired sex. This road may prove to be infinite.The position of gender re-assignment surgical procedure within the continuum of surgical procedures transexuals resort to allows for observation that transexuals, in fact, are continuously disturbed by abyss surrounded by them and ideal feminity (in case of men transexuals) and may never acquire bodily semblance enough to regularize their mind or gender identity at ease, that is to say that they are insecure in their feminity and their self apprehension is constantly impaired.Thus, it is impossible to render a transsexual somehow belonging to feminine gender solely on the ground of him/her being surgicaly treated. Rather, it is the expressed self apprehension as belonging to feminine gender that could make them what they want to be. This conclusion entails further ones. The most prominent of them is that pro nounced desire to be a femine is what transsexual has and ever would have and the aim of the law is to state whether it is sufficient for granting them all rights pertaining to feminine sex.In context of right to marriage this pronounced desire has to somehow fit into the definition of marriage (marriage is void unless the parties are respectively male and egg-producing(prenominal) (Bellinger para 1) or that definition has to be changed because of trustworthy cases which hardly fall within that definition but nevertheless seem to have transport kick on the marriage. Clearly, transsexual which articulate her gender to be feminine in the marriage tends to have a wife role which will organically consort with other characteristic of feminity she tends to.In Re Kevin (validity of marriage of transsexual) 2001 Fam CA 1074 it was stated that there is no formulaic solution to determining the sex of an individual for the purpose of the law of marriage and difference is essentially that we can readily observe or identify the genitals, chromosomes and gonads, but at present we are unable to detect or precisely identify the equally biological characteristics of the brain that are present in transsexuals But to put right to marriage in direct dependance upon determining sex of person seems to be a dead end.The array of cases strating from Corbett v Corbett 1971 P 83 and ending with present case testifies that this approach is hardly efficient. The desicion in Goodwin v UK (2002) 35 EHRR 18 position ground for re-apprisal of that approach. It reads that the Court found found no justification for barring the transsexual from enjoying the right to link under any circumstances. Obviously, there are no such impedements springing from the law itself which would prospectively prevent Marginal transvestites from acquiring right to marriage provided that there be a legislative will of Parlament.That the perplexities of that problem partially and presently stated earlier do prevent House of Commons from passing the bill also seems clear. At the same time, incentives coming out of European court are expressedly painted in colors of state-of-the-art and liberative legislative approach. Presently, I belive that formula which will satisfy Europeans will involve legislation tending to give up the resolution of academic debates as regards specific domains of meidine and, in fact, contribute to the progressive and enlighted resolution of those debates. In our case, present state of the law includes some deceptive furnish.It clearly states that parties to marriage are respectively male and female which seems to be consonant with the desire of Marginal transvestites as they tend to artificially acquire maleness or feminineness. At the same time, law and the court do not seem to bother about priciseness of their rendering of that provision. So far, as it occures from the great majority of the cases, the court only have approached notions of maleness and femal eness, construed them to signify biological sex and made efforts to elaborate measures of as receiveding that original sex.It is now clear that societal perception of gender does not co-incide with legal one. The court insures the degree of preciseness of that legal perception but apparently, the split mingled with society which eyes Marginal trasvestite and sees a girl, Marginal transvestite which lives and strives to be a girl really ever-approaching to it, and the Court which eyes Marginal transvestite through microscope and employes all kind of hromosomal tests and technical appliances to disclose that individuals original and abhorrent side is enormous.Doctors almost at once sided with their patient and developed certain categories (at the beggining Benjamine patient and then gender identity disorder) actually saling transvestites to state as transexuals taxon required and contigent in itself which would underscore their unstability at the original gender and destabilizing subjectivity. Another school of medicine tries to buy that category back from the state pointing at the internal incommensurability and incohesiveness of it.It (school) actually speak out that state and society bought the function which is not what it seems. And it is the time when gender and sex opposition is to reveal fully. As it might be construed from Bellinger case despite her successful effort to approach feminity Mrs. Bellinger did not managed to approach femaleness which under the present commissariat of the law warrant her a right to marriage. Doctors appealed to progressiveness and humanity of legislator so that the latter might jaw femaleness upon transexuals even if only to save their subjectivity.Unattainable status of, say, femaleness is mainly in drag down of legal deadend with marriage rights of marginal transvestites. If sex-related approach was changed for gender-related one (first signifies biological sex, second gender role) within the provisions of the la w it will greatly reduce that paintfull dialectics between transsexuals and doctors and transsexuals and law. Though, that changes ought to go with recognition of homosexual marriage.Transsexuals will never agree to register as homosexual family but this will reduce the degree to which marriage right depend on gender re-assignment procedure, which is immaterial to marginal trabnssexuals right to marriage. Number of words 3558.References Books Changing depend upon Transsexualism, Technology, and the Idea of Gender by Bernice L. Hausman Duke University Press, 1995 The Psychology of Sexual Orientation, Behavior, and Identity A Handbook by Louis Diamant, Richard D.McAnulty Greenwood Press, 1995 desoxyribonucleic acid and Destiny Nature and Nurture in Human Behavior by R. Grant Steen Plenum Press, 1996 Journal articles cross dressing A Survey of 1032 Cross-Dressers. by Richard F. Docter, Virginia Prince. Journal Title Archives of Sexual Behavior. Volume 26. Issue 6. outcome Year 1997. Page Number 589+. Moving gaily forward? Lesbian, gay and transgender human rights in Europe. by Kristen Walker. Melbourne Journal of International Law, June 2001 v2 i1 p122 Paper articles.

Sunday, April 14, 2019

Book Review Essay Example for Free

Book Review EssayThe invigorated is about a wolf called Faolan that survives with a fri halt of his, Edme. There is another wolf called the Prophet that tries to vent out wolves to bug out Faolan and Edme. They try to find a shelter to try to hide but end up get spotted by a wolf. They run away and escape from the wolf. After getting away they go out and find the Prophet. They confront him ask ask him why he wants to decimate them and he jumps at them and they finally kill the Prophet. The appropriate is associated with the other five Wolves of the Beyond phonograph records Lone Wolf, shadower Wolf, Watch Wolf, spirit Wolf, and Star Wolf.I would give the book a 2 because I handle the Wolves of the Beyond books. They rationalize how the wolves survive and how they hunt their prey. The book shows how they grow up and learn to hunt and take place with the others. I in like manner like how the author makes it feel like something is going to happen like a fight scene. Th e book also continues the story of the main character, Faolan and gives the wolf a characteristic for each book the author makes.The novel is about a wolf called Faolan that survives with a friend of his, Edme. There is another wolf called the Prophet that tries to send out wolves to kill Faolan and Edme. They try to find a shelter to try to hide but end up getting spotted by a wolf. They run away and escape from the wolf. After getting away they go out and find the Prophet. They confront him ask ask him why he wants to kill them and he jumps at them and they finally kill the Prophet.The book is associated with the other five Wolves of the Beyond books Lone Wolf, Shadow Wolf, Watch Wolf, Spirit Wolf, and Star Wolf.I would give the book a 2 because I like the Wolves of the Beyond books.They explain how the wolves survive and how they hunt their prey. The book shows how they grow up and learn to hunt and communicate with the others. I also like how the author makes it feel like someth ing is going to happen like a fight scene. The book also continues the story of the main character, Faolan and gives the wolf a characteristic for each book the author makes.

Friday, April 12, 2019

Historical Overview of the Insanity Defense Essay Example for Free

Historical Overview of the Insanity Defense EssayThe basic objective of this project is to be adequate to narrate the floor of the creation and use of hallucination defense force. The theory of using frenzy to defend those who be charged with serious criminal acts like mangle has been espouse by the proponents of the insanity defense ever since this particular move gained popularity especially among lawyers who successfully defended their clients by winning lesser forms of penalties ( roundtimes, even early freedom) for their clients by invoke that their clients ar unstable upon the agency of the crime. The theory in the use of and management of cases where insanity defense is used is, according to George Fletcher (1978) is that the use of insanity defense forces the resolution of our doubts about whether anyone is ever responsible for criminal preserve (Melton, Petrila, Poythress, Slobogin, 2007, p. 774). The theory of the insanity defense is better explained in t he MNaghten Rules of 1843 which was created after the attempted assassination of Robert Peel, then the height Minister of UK, involving yet again a nonher insane murderer (which was not the first time in UK history).It says at the time of the commission of the acts constituting the offense, the defendant as a result of a severe psychological disease or defect, was unable to appreciate the nature and quality of the wrongfulness of his acts (Moriarty, 2001, p. 153). The following briefly outlines the substantive developments in history wind to the establishment of the insanity defense as how it is known today display, theoretic framework, history and the conclusion discussing the impact of the use of insanity defense.History Several notable individuals in history have made insanity as their excuse on why they were able to commit the crime(s) that they were charge of. But this is not to say that this has always been effective. For one, insanity defense was not accept in some p arts of the world in some points in time. Even if it was recognized, not all of those who opted for it was freed or was decl atomic number 18 innocent. As early as the seventeenth century, there were already issues involving crime and insanity.For example, Dorothy Talbye was believed to be insane when she dispatch her daughter in 1638, but she was not able to use the insanity defense because it was not recognized in the colonial Americas system of neverthelessice during that particular era (Rogers, 2008, p. 7). More than a century later, the isolation of the cases wherein insanity is involved and the eventual development of the insanity defense started with the creation of the Criminal Lunatics Act of 1800 which was formalise in the unify Kingdom.This move was prompted by the rage expressed by the worldly concern after the discriminative system in place for managing those who are con brassred mentally ill or insane resulted in the bend of James Hadfield, who declared he was insane or mentally ill when he attempted to murder King George III (Moriarty, 2001, p. 164). Thinking that there are loose ends and potentially problematic areas in managing those who are charged with crime but who are insane, UK finally enacted the Criminal Lunatics Act of 1800.This was followed by the MNaghten Rules of 1843, which influenced many related to laws and rules applied in the US justice system before further developments influenced significant changes in how the insane is persecuted or how the justice system accommodates the plea for insanity in defense of criminal charge (Moriarty, 2001, p. 165). victimization the insanity defense to escape death was an option for those who are charged with murder not just in the UK, but in the United States as vigorous.As the US justice system progressed, it similarly made several adjustments when it comes to handling the insanity defense, developments which either complimented/helped or countered the insanity defense. One example is the introduction of the irresistible impulse in the US justice system (particularly in Ohio) in 1834 which explains one side of the insanity defense that despite being aware that the action was illegal, there was still a commission of the act because the individual lost control of his or her action because of mental impairment.This feature has had its run in US but was not enforced in UK at all (Moriarty, 2001, p. 153). There were some developments during the conterminous century after the idea of irresistible impulse was popularized in several court proceedings in the US. By 1954, there was the popular Durham Rule first featured in the United States royal court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit which focused on the characteristic of mental disease and defect leading to the insanity of the accused.But this particular aspect was getting fewer and fewer supporters that by the start of the mid-seventies it was very seldom used anymore (Mackay, 1995, p. 110). By 19 72, the Brawner Rule replaced the Durham rule during the case of the United States versus Brawner in the US Court of Appeals in the District of Columbia Circuit, with the Brawner rule stressing that the Brawner rule reduces the jury determination in the proceedings. This development, however, was not considered as a national precedent because it was a circuit case and not a case in the US Supreme Court.The relevance of this rule leave alone be follow by the implementation of the Insanity Defense Reform Act of 1984 (Thompson, 2007, p. 114). The shift towards drastically reconsidering the design for managing those who are accused of murder but gets away with the plea of insanity in US, like in UK, required a high profile case involving an assassination attempt on an important political leader. In this case, it was the case of John Hinckley Jr. and his assassination attempt on the US president Ronald Reagan and his use of the insanity defense.Because of how easily it seems that Hin ckley got away because of the loose ends the insanity defense manages to exploit, the changes in the law (Title 18, U. S. Code, Section 17) now requires those who will use the insanity defense to be able to prove convincingly that he or she is authentically severely insane (Thompson, 2007, p. 114). In 1986, there was a case in the US (Ford v. Wainright) wherein the impact of insanity defense was reflected once more. In this case, the person who was charged pleaded that he was insane.Because of this, he cannot be penalize in lieu of the existing US common law on insane defendants and how this type of individuals cannot be executed even if they are implicated in cases that merit the death sentence (Thompson, 2007, p. 114). Conclusion Impact of the practice of Insanity Defense When insanity defense became a popular tool for lawyers to use so that their client can have a lesser punishment, there were changes based on how the public as well as the lawmakers have reacted on this predic ament. The 1982 Hinckley case prompted the creation of bills as well as initiatives for the insanity defense to be revised.The United States Congress was involved, as well as many local state governments. Media entity aphorism that this topic has captured the attention of the public, and wanting to know what the hatful think about it, several polls were conducted and it revealed the sentiments of the public that the use of insanity defense often meant that justice was not served and that because of this practice many guilty people are being set free instead of being punished (Melton, Petrila, Poythress, Slobogin, 2007, p. 774).

Thursday, April 11, 2019

Iphone vs android Essay Example for Free

I echo vs android showOver the years technology has been improving in terms of entertainment, friendly media, and communication. Today, smart phones atomic number 18 a verification of this improving technology, but how do we decide which one is the better device? IPhone and Android are the latest most powerful direct formations out on the market. on that point are advantages and disadvantages to both cellular devices, and the ongoing competition will improve the smartphones for years to come.Affordability and durability are the two key factors when it comes to purchasing a smart phone. orchard apple tree and Google have gone head to head on competing for the best products. salubrious-nigh passel assume that the expensive device has better durability and can be used longer. value wise the Android phones carrys anywhere from one hundred to three hundred dollars. In contrast, the iPhone price chain is between two hundred to six hundred dollars. Most Android substance abusers report that they have dropped their phone multiple times and have not had major damage to their phone. On the other hand, iPhone users state that the lie screen display can be shattered easily because of the front screen glass bid display, and replacing the screen can often cost more than the phone itself.There is a wider range of android phones as they are made by a variety of manufactures. Android gives you the flexibility to recognize from many different colors, sizes or distinct features. The iPhone is restricted and limited to one model each year, but new-madely orchard apple tree has now developed two phones with different colors to match your personal preference. Nonetheless, Apple phones have the same features.While these phones are more powerful and sport than any other smartphone, that fun comes with a price. Any smartphone user will recharge their phone almost both couple of hours. The cellular data network on each phone drains the battery the most, because w e use it daily either for social networks or important information for homework. A smartphone without applications is nothing but an ordinary dull phone. The applications are the hub of the operating system. Both the iPhone and Android have app stores which are the Apple App store for iPhone and the Google Play Store for Android. According to recent news, each store now has about 700,000 apps.Many of the apps are free for both stores, but Apple on the other hand has a reputation for being pricey. Its also worth noting that Android is keep mum the second option for big companies developing applications. Many applications exist for both devices. Its logical that the chief(prenominal) focus is on releasing and updating the paid applications before the free ones. Each operating system has utter activated assistants which is an app on the android called S-Voice app and the well-known Siri for the iPhone. Siri is admired and amazingly beneficial to all the iPhone users. The voice activ ated assistants on each device, is an automated assistant that responds when one speaks to it, as if you were speaking to a person.There is also a free Android app called Robin, which pursues to rival Siri. Both of these devices contain a guided gliding system which help in getting around the local area. Apple Maps which is an app for the iPhone and Google Maps for Android. Google Maps allows the use of Googles Street mess Apple Maps does not. When using the GPS on the iPhone there have been complaints on how the GPS guides them to an unusual location rather than the authentic destination. The GPS for Android users is accurate and more reliable to use especially when going on road trips. entanglement Browser on Apple Safari for the iPhone and Google Chrome are both fine choices which work well on a mobile screen and offer touch screen capabilities, zooming in for instance is an example. In comparison the two phones have incredibly fast internet and it is basically like having a electronic computer in your pocket at all times. Adobe Flash is available on the Android, and it aids in website where a user interface is needed and here is where Android has the advantage. A function that many people cant seem to live without is the ability to text message.Both of these phones contain the ability to text, not full with ones fingers but by just by talking to the phones speaker. This function is beneficial, because instead of a phone call that might take up your time, you can just send a message withinseconds. IPhone and Android phones are currently the latest, in demand phones. just about people wonder what the difference between the two is, or if they are just the same. Technology changes every day and theres always new and different phones on the market. Ultimately its the users preference on which device they would like to purchase.

Tuesday, April 9, 2019

U.S. counterinsurgency operations in Cuba and the Philippines Essay Example for Free

U.S. recurrenceinsurgency executions in Cuba and the Philippines EssayIn January 2002, The unite acress Special Operation Commands, Pacific (SOCPAC) took on an arduous childbed of assisting the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) with a specific mission for ousting the terrorists forces of Al Qaida, Jemaah Islamiyah and the Abu Sayyaf Group(ASG) and to carry the humanitarian operations in the islands of Basilan which was considered as the most dangerous place. The United States Special Forces (SP) unit along with the specially equipped forces and spy rangers of the AFP formed the Light Reaction Company. This Light Reaction Company along with the SOCPAC were deployed at Basilan with the restore motive to reject the ASG sanctuary, undergo surveillance on the key positions, support the villagers, conduct regular fosterage to boost the morale of the AFP and support the strike forces of AFP and assist in the civil personal business operations. This was the part of the Oper ation Enduring Freedom-Philippines (OEF-P). In this operation, 350 operating personal were deployed and other 750 were providing logistics support to the headquarters in Zamboanga on Mindanao.The main purpose of the Mission was to help AFP in curbing the stronghold of Abu Sayyaf and as a result, the declared members of the Abu Sayyaf group reduced to 80 from 700. A nonher project that took place was Operation Smiles, a program to give medical aid to the local civilians of Basilan where the intensive fighting was taking place. The result of this operation was the establishment of 14 Schools, seven clinics, three hospitals and more than 20 fresh wells.Fighting again resumed in 2005 and 2006 between the government forces and the Abu Sayyaf group who was aligned with the New Peoples army. By the end of 2006, hundreds of guerillas and soldiers were killed, and NPA was remaining with 7,000 fighters whereas Abu Sayyaf with 2,000. United States took up a different approach in Cuba by inter fering in their upcountry private affairs. When the United States felt threatened by the Cuban revolution in 1959 and rise of socialism under Fidel Castro, they formed a special committee to launch an attack on Cuba.They faced the danger of the coercion of the communist parties in Cuba that they would unleash their communist movements in the States. They formulated the end to inf utilise the anti-regime odor and overthrow the government. They made thirty different plans to over throw the government and disrupt their economy. Among these were included the enjoyment of American Green Berrets, destruction of their sugar crops and mining of harbors. To overcome the crises, Cuba began to establish the trade races with Soviet Union.On April 17, 1961, United States conducted air strikes across the island to eliminate the Cuban air force, and enabling the Brigade 2506 to declare a complete control over the island much before their actual landing at the Bay of Pigs. This failed because the invasions were not conducted as planned and Fidel Castro even resisted an armed invasion of 1,500 CIA trained Cuban exiles at the Bay of Pigs. This was other excuse for America to increase their propaganda against the Cuban government. In 1962 Operation North wood, plan was initiated with the intention to use false flag as an excuse to attack Cuba.Every month since 1962 there was one plan or the other to destabilize the communist regime either in the form of publishing views against Castro, equiping war-ridden opposition groups with armaments, helping them in establishing guerilla bases and preparing them for their military interventions in Cuba in October. legion(predicate) of the plans were devised by the CIA with the resole purpose to assassinate Fidel Castro which included the use of hair removal powder to fall the Castros beard, a poisoned wetsuit, the exploding cigars and the placing of detonative seashells in Castros favorite places including the place where he uti lize to go for diving.This project was originally decided to dumbfound into action in October 1962 with an open revolt and ultimately to the overthrow the Communist regime. This action was planned when the Cuba was at the peak of the Cuban Missile crisis due to the Soviet Unionss presence of Soviet missiles in Cuba, and could have led to the nuclear war between Soviet Union and United States. Therefore on thirtieth October the operation was suspended, moreover they had already deployed three of ten six-man sabotage teams in Cuba. One team infact was prospering in blo giveg Cuban industrial facility on 8th November, 1962.This whole Cuban Project was cognize as Operation Mongoose. United States broke all the diplomatic relations with Cuba and imposed sanctions against it in 1962. The relationship between the two nations improved in 2000-2001 but again deteriorated when George W Bush came to power. Bush termed Cuba as an outpost of tyranny and his undersecretary to the U. S. State Department John R. Bolton levied accusations against Cuba of keeping and maintaing bioweapons program. Bolton even declared that Cuban attracter had visited US enemy countries deal Libya, Iran and Syria.Cuba was also declared as a State Sponsor of little terror by the United States department of State but Cuban government in turn accuses America for sponsoring terrorism against Cuba. Thus American Government again started their activities towards overthrowing the Cuban government and through the media propagated against the government to the consummation that the opposition parties, supporting United States in Havana started displaying messages on a scrolling electronic billboard and to counter these Cuban government constructed large number of poles, carrying black flags with white stars, to obstruct these messages.On 12th September, 2006, the United States formed five interagency working groups to monitor Cuba and to carry their policies. These groups were set up quitely in W ar like rooms. According to the U. S. officials, three of these created groups diplomatic actions strategic communications and democratic promotion are headed by the State Department. One more group which coordinated humanitarian aid to Cuba is run by the Commerce Department, and the twenty percent group tackles migration issues, is beingness run jointly by the National Security Council and the Department of Homeland Security.These prcocess is being undertaken to restore democracy. Thus the counter insurgency operations with Philippines was to help the Philippine regime to crush the terrorists activities of the Al Qaida, Jemaah Islamiyah and the Abu Sayyaf Group(ASF) whereas the United States Policy towards Cuba was to eliminate the Communist regime by supporting the opposition parties and to counter the Russias missiles in Cuba.United States Counter Insurgency operations in Philippines were over and all happy, and the reasons behind these successful efforts were the comprehensiv e operations, adopting strategy of attacking the enemys line of attacks and disrupting their alliances and this was achieved by strengthening the Philippine government institutions and local hostage so that the daily lives of the people can move on smoothly. The measures were also undertaken for civic development to forget necessary amenities to its population.These operations being carried out in Basilan led to the ousting of the ASG from the island simply because they anomic the support of the population and lost the combat operations as well as bases. But, there were legitimate strategic errors that led to again the emergence of ASG who Lived to fight another day with the sole help from the JI and MILF. The ASG is again rising on the southern islands of Jolo and Tawi Tawi where Forces of the United States are not allowed to give assistance to AFP. This web site arises due to the certain strategic errors by the United States.The first strategic error was inability of the OEF- P, American leaders to fruitfully understand their own forces. They could not understand the basic traits of SF in an arena of commerce and their capabilities to take out the combat advisory mission during unconventional warfare. Instead of fully understanding the situation, fighter commander and the Secretary of Defense imposed restrictions on SF soldiers. Over and above, the restrictions were also imposed on these SF advisers to pop off at battalion level with their AFP counterparts but were not disallowed to operate at lower tactical echelons.U. S. leaders at the highest levels also could not able to comprehend fully the unconventional warfare. This led to the foster strategic error and that is over-reliance on technical reconnaissance assets. The Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and the Navys P3 Orion began to be used for locating the ASG and the hostages on Basilan. These they used again for protection minimizing the risks to U. S. personnel. These though reduced the patroll ing in remote areas, but this kind of surveillance was unconventional, and the forces on the ground were not allowed to use these reconnaissance assets.The third reason cited because of the restraint of the U. S. leaders to assist the SF units because the negotiations were going on between the AFP and MILF, so forces were removed from MILF and because AFP was awful to take the advice and assistance from U. S. Military, AFP troops were shifted from MILF-controlled areas. This led to the creation of de facto ASG sanctuaries giving boost to the ASG and MILF strong relationship. Many people staying in the area are also the members of these two organizations. (Tzu Sun, May-June 2004). The United States strategy in Cuba did not get desired results.The CIA wrote an internal report that blamed the internal incompetence on failure. The administration concept that the troops could retreat to mountains and conduct guerrilla war if they lost in open battle. But they did not realize that the troops could not reach the mountains by foot. The second reason was that the troops were deployed in swampland, where they were good surrounded. The third biggest fault was their thinking that Cubans would be great full to them to give them liberation from Fidel Castro and would join in the battle, but the Americans could not gain the support of the population.It was basically due to the agencys weak positions on the ground in Cuba. CIAs witnessed the mass support of Castro and those who were against the Castro were rounded and arrested by him. (Bay of Pigs invasion, encyclopedia) Looking at these failures and strategies the soldiers in order to win the war against terrorism first of all should analyze the ground situation where the war is to be fought, take the local population into confidence, never underestimate the enemies, and use the reconnaissance assets at the appropriate situation and at the appropriate moment.WORKS CITED1. Bay of Pigs Invasion All Experts Encyclopedia Ret rieved April 5, 2007 from the World Wide Web http//en. allexperts. com/e/b/ba/bay_of_pigs_invasion. htm 2. Maxwell S. David (May-June 2004) Operation Enduring Freedom-Philippines What Would Sun Tzu Say? The U. S. Army Professional compose Collection Retrieved April 5, 2007 from the World Wide Web http//www. army. mil/professionalwriting/volumes/volume2/june_2004/6_04_3. html

Monday, April 8, 2019

The Ruined Maid in the Novel Essay Example for Free

The Ruined Maid in the Novel EssayFor dreariness nonhing could slip by a prospect in the step forwardskirts of a certain town and military station, many miles north of Weatherbury, at a later hour on this same s at presenty regular(a)ing if that may be called a prospect of which the chief constituent was darkness Both appearances of andt joint Robin prevail been underc all over of wickedness and in darkness which suggests that she has such an element of tragedy about her, she cannot be seen in the light which normally signifies positivity and purity she has been ruin by something unknown to the reader at the present time. The bell was in the open air, and being overlaid with several inches of muffling snow had lost its voice for the time. The bell represents lowlife Robins and it being in the open air illustrates her vulnerability. Hardy then goes on to reveal that it was overlaid with several inches of muffling snow which signifies quarters increasing insignificance and diminish strength as a bell is usually something clearly heard only when now it most cannot be heard at all.It shows how her fate is out of her control just as the weather change the bell is unpredictable and uncontrollable. In this chapter git Robin is shown not out of place with her destitute surroundings, even trying to become part of it as her stature is stooped as if she is trying to be as unnoticed as possible. Hardy aids this by again not revealing her identity but by referring to her as a mere form and spot that only seemed human. The throw was the idea of a man conjoined with the execution of a woman.No man who had ever seen bird, rabbit, or squirrel in his childhood, could possibly have thrown with such utter imbecility as was shown here. Here hardy makes it clear that Fanny has lost all notion of what a respectable woman would do as her actions of throwing snow at Sergeant troy weights window is likened to that of a mans. However, she still conforms to what wo uld be expected if a woman were to do so by Hardys sexist notion that her throw showed such utter imbecility the blurred spot could not possibly be a man, also signifying her physical weakness.Fannys identity is not even recognised by her lover troy weight as he asks What girl are you? which backs up the reputation of a spend in which one is not entirely devoted to only one woman at a time. The dialogue to follow shows their complete opposite affections for one another Troy shows how undependable he is and that he does not return the same love for Fanny as she does for him, or even treat it mischievously at all.Their difference in character and position in the relationship is demonstrated by hardys pulmonary tuberculosis of similes likening both to the setting around them Fanny being so much like a mere shade upon the earth shows how she is part of an unpredictable and vulnerable substance which is at the mercy of Troy being so much a part of the building signifying his streng th in the relationship and association that he can take advantage of Fannys vulnerable state.They are likened so much to these inanimate objects that one(a) would have said the wall was holding a conversation with the snow. Due to her naivety towards Troys true nature, Fanny then asks the question of when they shall be unify a preposterous action of a woman of that period. However, their join is thwarted by an explainable misunderstanding and it is not surprising that Troy uses this as an excuse to furcate off all relations with Fanny leaving her alone and deeper in the poverty for which he is obligated for.Fanny is now truly a ruined maid as both pregnant and unmated she has no place in any respectable society and so we as the reader are made to feel sympathy and pity for her through Hardys description of the pathos of her circumstance. Page 230 marks a change in Troys nature as he imparts that Fanny has long ago left me I have searched for her everywhere almost suggesting that he regrets his previous actions towards her. In chapter 29 Troy, newly married to Bathsheba, comes across a woman of extreme poverty and sadness of face undeniably Fanny.This section of the allegory evidences Troys altered emotions towards Fanny as he offers her money and agrees to meet her in two days time. Troy also protects her identity to Bathsheba though for whose benefit it is unclear. Chapter 40 marks the start of the quick net hurry of Fanny in contrast to before as we noted her slow demise to ruination over a number of chapters whereas now, when she becomes a significant part of the fabrication, her end is narrated almost consecutively without much interval.Her inordinately strenuous walk to Casterbridge marks the last journey she will take. We are still not told in a flash that it is Fanny Robin as Hardy still masks her identity and describes her only as the woman but it is easy enough to assume. Her undeniable perseverance shows that she is still naively at the mercy of Troy and his actions towards her have made no real emotional impact on her, even after such a long time. Hardy again uses pathetic fallacy much like in chapter 11 by describing the sky to set the tone in which Fanny is then presented.When the woman awoke it was to find herself in the depths of a moonless and starless night. A heavy unbroken crust of cloud stretched across the sky, shutting out every speck of heaven. Fanny again finds herself in darkness, a recurring constitution in the novel although the fact that it is moonless and starless and the cloud is shutting out every speck of heaven sets a more formidable mood than ever associated with Fanny as any possible positive face is gone Hardy again prepares the reader for the dire events to come.When Fanny no longer has the strength to await herself she leans on a dog which proves ironic that she does not receive any human aid. The dog is extremely significant as it illustrates Fannys final fall in both social statu s and ruination and she now finds comfort and reassurance from an animal much like when Gabriel likens himself to his sheepdog in the early chapters marking his own fling in social status.It is then revealed that a man has stoned away(p) the dog symbolising mans bearing towards Fanny as it was a man who reduced her to poverty, left her ruined and then chased away the dog the only thing that has ever shown her true kindness and compassion. Fanny never makes it to Casterbridge but tragically dies whilst having Troys child in the poor house. Her death is extremely significant and marks her complete transformation into a ruined maid she dies whilst having an illegitimate child unknown to the father who left her poverty stricken in a world where she is insignificant and alone.Her death also has an almost domino effect as Hardys theme of chance and fate spreads Fannys tragic end onto the other characters leading to the ruination of Bathsheba and Troys marriage. The truth is revealed ab out Fanny and her child and the blame is not placed on her but on Troy, the sole villain that ruined her. Fannys utterly pitiful situation invokes the sympathy of even hard-headed Bathsheba showing the intensity of her ruination.Throughout Far From the Madding Crowd, the meetings with Fanny Robin illustrate what happens to a person who unnoticeably falls through the crevices in society, who is neglected and gauzy to humanity and so lives a brief life of poverty, ending in tragedy. Hardy uses a eonian isolated and distant tone, never directly identifying her, when describing Fanny, portraying the scarcity of attention she receives from others. Due to this it is clear that her ultimate ruination was inevitable from the start.

Sunday, April 7, 2019

In India, the Micro and Small Enterprises Essay Example for Free

In India, the Micro and low-spirited Enterprises EssayIt has been our commitment to develop a strong and vibrant SMEs segment that acts as the backbone of Indias industrial sector. SMERA has been contributing to this goal by providing ratings to these firms, to enable their sustained and vibrant growth. SMERA recognises this potential of the SME segment and the benefits it holds for our nation. It is in this context SMERA, jointly with Dun Bradstreet India, is proud to launch the publication series, Emerging SMEs of India. The high fragmented genius of the SME segment makes availability of information difficult. A one-point reference document listing SMEs was imperative at this juncture. We want to fulfil this long felt need. The publication has attempted to bring home the bacon critical information on 370 companies and provide a concise profile of their activities. It aims to bring out the best SMEs and project them before domestic corporates outsourcing their needs to SME s and also potential importers on the lookout for reliable SMEs to source their requirements.The current endeavour is an effort to ask the void and provide Indian SMEs a platform where they can interact, learn and do networking with stakeholders in associated events unneurotic with brand building. We are sure that this publication will benefit many individuals, banks, corporates, government institutions and agencies that provide jump and promote the SMEs. Through this pioneering initiative, SMERA re-dedicates itself to serving the small and medium enterprises of India. The Ministry of bantam Scale Industries (SSI) is a defunct Indian government ministry. It was merged with the Ministry of Agro and Rural Industries to form the Ministry of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises. The ministry was tasked with the promotion of micro and small enterprises (MSEs). The Ministry of Small Scale Industries and Agro and Rural Industries (SSIARI) was created in October 1999. In September 2001, the ministry was split into the Ministry of Small Scale Industries (SSI) and the Ministry of Agro and Rural Industries (ARI).

Saturday, April 6, 2019

Daedalus, momentarily stricken with jealousy Essay Example for Free

Daedalus, momentarily stricken with jealousy EssayDaedalus was a highly respected and talented Athenian artisan descendent from the royal family of Cecrops, the mythical first tabby of Athens. He was known for his skill as an architect, sculpture, and inventor, and he produced many famous works. Despite his self-confidence, Daedalus once act a crime of envy against Talus, his nephew and apprentice. Talus, who seemed destined to become as great an artisan as his uncle Daedalus, was exalt one day to invent the saw after having seen the way a snake used its jaws. Daedalus, momentarily stricken with jealousy, threw Talus off of the Acropolis. For this crime, Daedalus was exiled to Crete and placed in the service of King Minos, where he eventually had a son, Icarus, with the beautiful Naucrate, a mistress-slave of the King. Minos called on Daedalus to build the famous Labyrinth in order to imprison the dread Minotaur. The Minotaur was a monster with the head of a bull and the body of a man. He was the son of Pasiphae, the married woman of Minos, and a bull that Poseidon had sent to Minos as a gift.Minos was shamed by the birth of this horrible pecker and resolved to imprison the Minotaur in the Labyrinth where it fed on humans, which were taken as tribute by Minos and sacrificed to the Minotaur in memory of his fallen son Androgenos. Theseus, the heroic King of Athens, volunteered himself to be sent to the Minotaur in the hopes of cleanup position the beast and ending the human tribute that his city was forced to pay Minos. When Theseus arrived to Crete, Ariadne, Minoss daughter, fell in pick out with him and wished to help him survive the Minotaur.Daedalus revealed the mystery of the Labyrinth to Ariadne who in turn advised Theseus, thus enabling him to reach the Minotaur and escape from the Labyrinth. When Minos found out what Daedalus had done he was so enraged that he imprisoned Daedalus Icarus in the Labyrinth themselves. Daedalus conceived to esca pe from the Labyrinth with Icarus from Crete by constructing go and then flying to safety. He built the locomote from feathers and wax, and before the two set off he warned Icarus not to fly too low lest his wings touch the waves and get wet, and not too high lest the sun melt the wax.But the young Icarus, overwhelmed by the thrill of flying, did not heed his fathers warning, and flew too close to the sun whereupon the wax in his wings limpid and he fell into the sea. Daedalus escaped to Sicily and Icarus body was carried ashore by the current to an island then without a name. Heracles came crosswise the body and recognized it, giving it burial where today there still stands a small persuade promontory jutting out into the Aegean Sea, and naming the island and the sea around it after the fallen Icarus.

Friday, April 5, 2019

British Airways Essay Example for Free

British Airways EssayIn 1987, British Airways was privatised, and over the next ecstasy turned from a freeing-making nationalised company into The Worlds Favourite Airline a merchandise-leading and very profitable plc. The strategy that alter the company into a marketing-led and efficient operation was conceived and implemented by Lord powerfulness as Chairman, aided by Sir Colin (subsequently Lord) Marshall two tough stage businessmen who confronted staff inefficiencies and so improved receipts metier that BA was rated world(prenominal) business travellers favourite air duct for several years in the 1990s. Lord King having retired, Lord Marshall became Chairman and was succeeded as Chief Executive by Bob Ayling, a long-time BA manager.Ayling set in train a strategy to turn BA into a global respiratory tract transcending the flag-carrier status (the role of a nations leading airline) it shared with Air France, Lufthansa, Swissair, Alitalia, Iberia into an airline w ith no national firm operating throughout the world. The dropping of the overtly British heritage and associations was reflected in a changed brand strategy. forth went aeroplane liveries featuring the Union flag, to be replaced by tailfins bearing themed designs from around the world. This was to address the global traveller a savvy (mainly business) customer whose criteria for purchase were service levels, range of destinations, promptness not price. still the re-branding became a debacle. Customers, staff, conglutination checkmates, shareholders and retailers (travel agents) all liked the British heritage and imagery and rebelled against the turn to an anonymous, characterless new style.Ayling also focussed on cost-reduction programmes which antagonised and demotivated BAs staff and customers noticed the deterioration in behaviour of staff whose commitment to customer service suddenly plummeted.The upshot was that Ayling was ousted in a boardroom coup in prove 2000. Duri ng his reign, a dismissal of 244m in the year to March 31 2000 the offset since privatisation was recorded and the groups market value had fallenby half.A New Face.In May 2000, Rod Eddington joined BA as Chief Executive. He was previously Managing Directory of Cathay Pacific and Executive Chairman of Ansett, an Australian airline.Eddingtons immediate actions were designed to restore profitableness to BAs trading operations and to restore the Union Flag to BAs planes He set closely reducing the fleet, moving to littler aircraft, cutting clearly unprofitable routes. He also targeted spunky-yield customers, the traditional mainstay segment for BA. Matching furnish with demand was the overall concern, to restore positive cash flow.Strategically, BAs longtime search for a merger partner was resumed. A link with American Airlines, the first choice partner, was out of the question after US regulatory authorities squashed the idea. A proposed merger with KLM, the Dutch flag carrie r, was discussed in some depth, exactly that foundered on doubts over the long-term financial benefits, and arguments over the relative shares each airline would have in the unify company.Low-Cost Airlines.Meanwhile, the airline industry was under dismissal a seismic shift with the rise of low-cost no frills airlines. Ryanair and easyJet had, at first, demonstrated the existence of a new market for cheap airline travel which had not been tapped by traditional airlines. But then they began to expand and to compete for passengers that normally would have gone to BA hitherto business class customers couldnt see the reason to pay 100 for breakfast (the difference in price between BA and easyJet between London and Edinburgh.)BAs response (under Bob Ayling) was to form GO as a direct response to the no-frills competitor. Operating out of Stansted airport, GO was operatedentirely separately from BA, so none of the high-cost culture was inherited. Launched in the face of vociferous op s tain from easyJet, GO nevertheless established itself in the market though at what cost, no-one could guess.Rod Eddington soon decided that his focus on premium customers made GOs operations inconsistent with that of BA as a whole. GO was sold in May 2001 for 100m to 3i, a UK infer capital and private equity group.GO was subsequently sold on to easy Jet for 375m.However, the thrust of aggressive strategies from budget airlines is still forcing flag-carriers to re-assess their business models.The Outcome.For the year ended March 2001, Eddingtons steps had yielded a quadruple of operating profits. Market share on key routes had been lost as cuts in fleet and routes bit, however BA believed it had lost customers who paid deeply-discounted fares. BA continued its vigorous pursuit of high-yield passengers.September 11th.So, all seemed to be dismissal well. The brand was being restored, financial performance was improving and the only real problem was wish of progress on forming a pa rtnership with a US carrier, prevented by the regulators. Then came September 11th, and the airline market fell apart. The consequences were swift passenger rime fell 28%, US airports were closed for a week, Swissair, Sabena, US Airlines and nearly, Aer Lingus, went bust. Alitalia lost 570m, Lufthansa 400m. Altogether the industry lost 7bn and shed 120,000 jobs 13,000 at BA and passenger numbers are still running at 13% below normal on transatlantic routes.In contrast, passenger numbers and financial results at low-cost carriers easyJet and Ryanair were rising impressively.Then came Sars, the Iraq war and the continuing stoicism of the world economy, all deeply damaging to passenger numbers.Strategy at BA was thrown into disarray. modern Strategy.With the travel market is still subject to global economic and political uncertainty, BA has repeated its forecasts for write down revenues. However, the fundamentals of this business are stronger than they have been for four or fiv e years John Rishton, finance Director, says BA is generating cash, and is conserving that cash. (FT and D.Tel. 6.11.02).The operational imperatives to cope with the turbulent environment are expressed in BAs Future surface and Shape initiative which is intended to Achieve significant cost reductions. Originally targeted at 650m, the cost savings are now expected to save an annualised 1.1bn over 3 years (FT 19.3.03). Simplified operations and stripped overheads is the aim. Cut capacity, to match supply of aircraft and flights to the reduced demand. Cut staffing levels. A further 3,000 job cuts planned for March 2004 have been brought forward to September 2003. Change BAs business model. Aware that no-frills competition is not going to go away, but that BA possesses a positive service heritage, BA wants to create an offering that combines the lift out bits of BA and the no-frills model. Martin George, BAs director of marketing and commercial development, explains our customers lik e the BA product convenient airports, high frequency, good level of service but want it at the right price, and thats what well give them. Its about changing our business model to allow us to compete profitably (Management Today, September 2000). Rationalise BAs inner UK and short-haul business CitiExpress has been formed from the activities of subsidiaries Brymon, BRAL, Manx and BA Regional. To stem heavy losses on this short-haul network, some systematization has been done it has pulled out of Cardiff and Leeds-Bradford airports, and will cut its current fleet from 82 to 50 all-jet planes by end-2005. However, it is expanding operations from Manchester, and from London City airport to Paris and Frankfurt. (FT 18.12.02).It is recognised that BA started to take the bitter medicine of cost cuts and restructuring earlier and in bigger doses than rivals in Europe and North America, and that Rod Eddington has pushed through changes that were long overdue. But is this enough? can B A wrest back the short haul market from easyJet and Ryanair, while maintaining its position in the longhaul marketStrikeIn July 2003, just at the start of the busy holiday season, BA was hit by an unofficial strike by Heathrow check-in and sales staff who were objecting to a hurried introduction of a swipe-card automatic clocking system. 500 flights were cancelled, affecting 100,000 passengers. The damage to BAs service reputation was enormous. two management and union leaders were taken by surprise, and it brought to a head the existence of restrictive practices going back 40 or 50 years which both sides have to confront.Performance.Results for the year ending thirty-first March 2003 showed a pretax profit of 135 on turnover down 7.8% to 7.69bn, up from a loss of 335 in the year to March 2002. The results included a charge of 84m for the planned ending of Concorde flights in October, and a fourth-quarter loss (January to March) of 200m. These positive results were entirely down to cost reduction. Nodividend was paid a consequence of the indispensableness to conserve cash. Operating margin at 3.8% is way below Eddingtons target of 10%. (D.Tel, 20.5.03, FT, 21.5.03).In the first quarter of the 2003-04 year, a pretax loss of 45m was incurred the effect of the Heathrow strike was put at 30-40m.The business environment.However, Rod Eddington sees the furure business environment as very hard to read, but expects it to get tougher. 2003-04 was meant, according to analysts, to be BAs year of recovery, but it is not now expected to happen. (DTel, 11.2.03)A critical development is the start of talks between the EU and the USA to dismantle the web of regulations that have controlled the development of international aviation since the mid-1940s.Eddington, as chairman of the stand of European Airlines, insists that truly global airlines are impossible in the current regulatory environment. If it were left to the market, international airlines would undoubtedly follow in the footsteps of other industries and would seek the benefits of scale and scope that are currently denied them. A truly global airline..would be free to operate wherever its customers demanded, free to grow organically or through acquisition and free to charge whatever the market would bear.These talks are likely to be very long. However, it potentially offers the opportunity for an opening of the two biggest airline markets and lead to substantial consolidation of participants. (FT, 29.9.03).The coup detat of KLM, the Dutch flag carrier, by Air France, may be the precursor to the consolidation expected. BA sees no threat from what is now Europes largest airline. D.Tel, 1.01.03).